Catalog and Analysis of Radio Signals
During The Search for Amelia Earhart in July 1937


Signals July 6

The Signal Identifier number is divided into these elements:

Day Time Source
6 0606 IA
(July) 24hr List

  • Identifiers in BLUE are TRANSMISSIONS to Earhart.
  • Identifiers in RED are reported receptions that are judged to be NOT CREDIBLE.
  • Identifiers in BLACK are reported receptions the credibility of which are judged to be UNCERTAIN.
  • Identifiers in GREEN are reported receptions that are judged to be CREDIBLE.

145–60606IA 146–60610IA 147–60619IA 148–60630IA 149–60640IA 150–60700IA 151–60800IA 152–60812HD 153–60831RL 154–60500YG
155–60835IA 156–60843IA 157–60920IA 158–61040CV 159–61345IA 160–61400IA 161–61400CB 162–61435ML 163–6xxxxKV 164–70330TN
165–70700TN 166–70747KB 167–71125HD 168–71210ML 169–71220HD 170–71230LC 171–71430ML 172–80245FZ 173–80540HS 174–80710HD
175–80718HD 176–90200MS 177–90300AD 178–90300RD 179–90712HD 180–90800FS 181–90844HD 182–10xxxxUN    

145
Identifier 60606IA
Z Time/Date 0606 July 6
Local Time/Date 1836 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1906 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice; content unspecified.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 192
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

146
Identifier 60610IA
Z Time/Date 0610 July 6
Local Time/Date 1840 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1910 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) unknown
Content Itasca requested Earhart to send 4 long dashes.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 193
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

147
Identifier 60619IA
Z Time/Date 0619 July 6
Local Time/Date 1849 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1919 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) unknown
Content Itasca again requested Earhart to send 4 long dashes
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 193
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

148
Identifier 60630IA
Z Time/Date 0630 July 6
Local Time/Date 1900 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1930 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) unknown
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 193
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

149
Identifier 60640IA
Z Time/Date 0640 July 6
Local Time/Date 1910 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1940 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 193
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

150
Identifier 60700IA
Z Time/Date 0700 July 6
Local Time/Date 1930 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2000 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 194
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a
151
Identifier 60800IA
Z Time/Date 0800 July 6
Local Time/Date 2030 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2100 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code and voice, requesting her to send 4 long dashes.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 195
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

152
Identifier 60812HD
Z Time/Date 0812 July 6
Local Time/Date 2142 HST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2112 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Howland heard a weak, unreadable voice signal.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 196
Probability 0.96
Qual Factors Howland could have been hearing a west coast aircraft signal. There is insufficient information to determine the credibility of this signal.
Credibility Uncertain.

153
Identifier 60831RL
Z Time/Date 0831 July 6
Local Time/Date 0331 EST July 6
Gardner Time/Date 2131 July 5
Agency/Person Charles L. Russell
Location Dennison, Ohio
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content Russell informed the U.S. Army Adjutant General, in Washington, D.C. that he heard a weak voice signal at 0331 EST, from a station he thought might be Earhart, with call sign “WHAQQ” or “W8AQQ,” saying “we are 150 miles southeast by 50 miles east of Howland Isle,” and something about “cold,” “all is well so far,” “we have sent out message from time to time but no response,” “look for red kite,” and “food supply and water.” There were sounds of motors and “something similar to ocean sounds,” and static “blotted out exact words.” The voice sounded like a man, and like a woman at other times. There also was “another voice heard at times” as if another person was with them. Russell said his radio was a Sparton "several years of age."
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 438
Probability 3105 kHz: zero; 6210 kHz: 0.00002; 9315 kHz: 0.0000001; 12420 kHz: 0.00000066; and 15525 kHz: 0.0085.
Qual Factors The receiver description is consistent with the Sparton Model 67 (introduced in 1934) which had shortwave coverage from 5500 kHz to 16,670 kHz. Russell could have heard Earhart on a harmonic of 3105 kHz. The call sign – WHAQQ or W8AQQ – could be a garble of KHAQQ. The “third person” heard could have been a harmonic of a commercial aircraft. However, the position given is quite specific and yet there is no land anywhere near there, and the airplane could not transmit if afloat. Prior to the first world flight attempt there was some publicity, including a photo, about Earhart carrying a kite but there was no kite listed in the Luke Field inventory and there is no evidence that a kite was aboard for the second attempt. The content of the message strongly suggests that it is a hoax.
Credibility Not Credible

154
Identifier 60500YG
Z Time/Date 0500 July 6
Local Time/Date 2300 CST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1800 July 5
Agency/Person Mrs. Young
Location Willmette. Illinois
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content Mrs. Young contacted the office of the Commandant of the 9th Naval District (COM9) at Great Lakes, Illinois, saying that she heard Earhart “on shortwave” saying “We cannot last more than three hours longer position 42 miles north Howland Island.” COM9 passed the report the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) in Washington, DC, and said that he would check on the report.
Sources MSG9.PDF, pp. 407, 409, and 424; Finding Amelia, p. 184.
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion on 3105 kHz.
Quality Factors The propagation conditions on 3105 kHz were such that the likelihood of reception was virtually zero. There is no land 42 miles north of Howland. If the plane was there, it would be on water, in which case the transmitter could not operate. COM9 investigated the report and informed CNO that, based on Mrs. Young’s reputation as provided by local police, the report was considered to be absolutely unfounded.
Credibility Not Credible.

155
Identifier 60835IA
Z Time/Date 0835 July 6
Local Time/Date 2105 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2135 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca asked Earhart (presumably in voice) if she had sent up a flare, and asked her to send another. (Note: this request was sent as a result of Itasca misidentifying heat lightening or meteors as flares).
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 196
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

156
Identifier 60843IA
Z Time/Date 0843 July 6
Local Time/Date 2113 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2143 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code and voice, telling her they had seen her flares and were proceeding toward her. (Note: there were no flares).
Source RADREST. PDF, p. 197
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

157
Identifier 60920IA
Z Time/Date 0920 July 6
Local Time/Date 2150 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2220 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content Itasca called Earhart, telling her that her flares had been seen.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 198
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

158
Identifier 61040CV
Z Time/Date 1040 July 6
Local Time/Date 0240 PST July 6
Gardner Time/Date n/a
Agency/Person Unknown
Location Unknown
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content At 1040 GMT (0240 PST) on July 6, COMFRANDIV told the Itasca, and other participants in the search for Earhart, that COMFRANDIV was checking reports that had been received at 0555 PST on July 3, of signals heard on 3105 kHz. COMFRANDIV said there was “considerable belief” in one [unspecified] report which stated that a woman’s voice sent four distress calls followed by “KHAQQ,” and then followed by a Morse code transmission saying “225,” then something [garbled] then “off Howland battery very weak can’t last long” [then something else garbled, possibly “sand” or “bank”.] COMFRANDIV went on to say “the only banks charted are south and east of Howland, however, report may have been 225 north northwest of Howland. Investigating further.”
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 414; Finding Amelia, p. 193
Probability Unknown, due to lack of signal date/time
Qual Factors There are no specifics – date, time, receiving agency/person and location – for the signal. There is no explanation for COMFRANDIV’s 3-day delay in transmitting, or “considerable belief” in, this vague report. Guessing that the garbled report might have meant the plane was 225 miles north northwest of Howland amounts to baseless speculation. There is no land within 400 miles of that point, and it was impossible for Earhart’s transmitter to operate if the plane was on water. The phrase “battery very weak” is suspect, since Earhart had no way to know the state of battery charge. There is no known COMFRANDIV follow-up report on the results of “investigating further.” The report described by COMFRANDIV appears to be a hoax.
Credibility Not credible

159
Identifier 61345IA
Z Time/Date 1345 July 6
Local Time/Date 0215 July 6
Gardner Time/Date 0245 July 6
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice. Details unknown.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 202
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

160
Identifier 61400IA
Z Time/Date 1400 July 6
Local Time/Date 0230 July 6
Gardner Time/Date 0300 July 6
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice. The Itasca log does not show the content, but Howland Island heard the call and reported that Itasca requested Earhart to send 4 long dashes.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 202
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

161
Identifier 61400CB
Z Time/Date 1400 July 6
Local Time/Date 1000 EDT, July 6
Gardner Time/Date 0300 July 6
Agency/Person Mrs. Ernest Crabb
Location Toronto, Canada
Freq (kHz) 18630
Content This reception was on the morning of second day after Mrs. Crabb heard Identifier 76 above. The local newspaper said: “Scraps of conversation in the voices of a man and a woman came in this morning on the short-wave radio of Mrs. Ernest Crabb of Ashdale Avenue. She was tuned in on the same wavelength, 18,600 kilocycles, on which for two days she believes she has heard conversation between Amelia Earhart Putnam and her navigator, Fred Noonan. The conversations, which could not be heard last night or early this morning, resumed shortly after 10 o’clock.”
Source Toronto Daily Star, July 6, 1937
Probability 0.003
Qual Factors 18630 kHz is the 6th harmonic of 3105 kHz. The newspaper reference to 18,600 kHz apparently was Mrs. Crabb’s estimate of the frequency on her radio dial. She heard this signal on the same shortwave receiver she used the two previous days. There was a 50,000 watt Japanese shortwave broadcast station – JZL in Tokyo – at 17,785 kHz, which could explain why Mrs. Crabb was tuning in that part of the band, and why occasional Japanese sentences could be heard on 18,630 kHz. Home radios of the day had poor selectivity on shortwave bands, and random changes in the propagation path could allow the JZL signal strength at Toronto to rise enough to overcome the receiver selectivity and be heard together with a signal from Earhart’s 50-watt transmitter at Gardner. Given the similarity of this signal to Identifier 41200CC, and the credibility of Identifier 41200CC, there is no reason to doubt the credibility of this signal.
Credibility Credible

162
Identifier 61435ML
Z Time/Date 1435 July 6
Local Time/Date 0635 PST July 6
Gardner Time/Date 0335 July 6
Agency/Person Charles Miguel
Location Oakland, CA
Freq (kHz) Unknown, assumed to be “About 86 meters” (3,488 kHz) as in Miguel’s previous report
Content COMFRANDIV received a report from “amateur Oakland” (a contextual reference to Charles Miguel, who previously reported an alleged Earhart signal – 31455ML above), who claimed to have heard “NRUI NRUI KHAQQ TWO EIGHT ONE NORTH HOWLAND CANNOT HOLD MUCH LONGER DRIFTING NORTHWEST WE ABOVE WATER MOTORS SINKING IN WATER.”
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 424; Finding Amelia, p. 184.
Probability n/a
Qual Factors It was impossible for the plane to transmit if on water. Parts of this alleged signal are identical to the phrasing in the signal “281 NORTH HOWLAND CALL KHAQQ BEYOND NORTH DONT HOLD WITH US MUCH LONGER ABOVE WATER SHUT OFF,” heard at Wailupe the previous day and widely reported in the press. COMFRANDIV (MSG9.PDF, p. 436) investigated and found that this report was false and that Miguel’s reputation was “extremely dubious.” Miguel clearly was a hoaxer.
Credibility Not credible

163
Identifier 6xxxxKV
Z Time/Date Time unknown. Date apparently July 6
Local Time/Date Time unknown. Date apparently July 6
Gardner Time/Date Time unknown. Date apparently July 6
Agency/Person Radio amateur station K6NTV
Location Maui Island, Hawaii
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content The Coast Guard station in San Diego CG, San Diego, told Itasca at 03:40 PST, July 6: Following received from amateur station W6BGH “station K6NTV at Maui reports hearing mans voice from Earhart plane calling Itasca with a strong signal. Itasca does not seem able to make contact. If Itasca desires work through K6NTV he will be listening for her call and shift to 75 meters to answer her on.”
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 415
Probability n/a
Qual Factors W6BGH was Karl Pierson, in Los Angles, who has been shown in this catalog to be a hoaxer. A United Press (UP) wire story of July 6 [Altoona, PA, Mirror, p.11] said the signals were heard by Maui amateur station K6KLV, who reported the matter to Maui amateur station K6NTV, who relayed it to Karl Pierson. The report provides neither frequency, nor time, nor date, nor any other details of the alleged call to Itasca. According to a UP story of July 7 [Abilene, TX, Reporter-News, July 8, 1937, p.2], unexplained “peculiar conditions” prevented Maui hams from reaching authorities in Honolulu, so they reported directly to Pierson. This explanation is implausible. Neither is the claim of being able to answer Earhart on “75 meters.” The 75-meter amateur band extended from 3500 kHz to 4000 kHz, and there was no reason to expect Earhart to listen for signals in that band.
Credibility Not credible.

164
Identifier 70330TN
Z Time/Date 0330-0340 July 7
Local Time/Date 2030-2040 MST July 6
Gardner Time/Date 1630 July 6
Agency/Person W. H. Tippin, amateur radio operator W5SFQ
Location 5 miles NW of El Paso, TX
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Tippin claimed to have heard pairs of dashes on 3105, repeated at intervals for ten minutes, apparently responding to the request by Honolulu Columbia Broadcasting station KGMB the previous night, for Earhart to send two dashes if she was on land, and three in on water.
Source Abilene, TX, Reporter-News, July 7, 1937.
Probability Zero. Nearly the entire propagation path from Gardner to El Paso was in daylight.
Qual Factors The propagation conditions on 3105 kHz were such that it was impossible for Tippin to have heard a signal from Gardner on 3105 kHz. No stations in the central Pacific heard the alleged signals, nor did COMFRANDIV in San Francisco, using two high-gain rhombic antennas.
Credibility Not credible.

165
Identifier 70700TN
Z Time/Date 0700 July 7
Local Time/Date 0000 CST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 2000 July 6
Agency/Person W. H. Tippin, amateur radio operator W5SFQ
Location 5 miles NW of El Paso, TX
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Tippin said he heard a woman’s voice “on Miss Earhart’s frequency of 3105 kilocycles.” He further said “The signals were not strong enough to read. They came a half minute at a time over a period of ten minutes.”
Source El Paso, TX, Herald-Post, July 7, 1937
Probability 0.000000016
Qual Factors The reception probability was extremely low. Earhart’s transmitter was the only plausible central Pacific source of voice signals on 3105 kHz, but no central Pacific station heard the signal, nor did COMFRANDIV at San Francisco, using two high-gain rhombic antennas.
Credibility Not credible

166
Identifier 70747KB
Z Time/Date 0747-0907 July 7
Local Time/Date 2117-2237 HST July 6
Gardner Time/Date 2047-2207 July 6
Agency/Person Mr. Stanley, Radio station KGMB
Location Honolulu
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content KGMB received telephone reports from radio amateurs on Oahu and Maui who said they intermittently heard a “rippling carrier right on 3105 kcs,” from 2117 to 2237 HST. One of the amateurs said that it sounded like a motor driven generator rather than a direct current source. KGMB also received calls from amateurs in Los Angeles and Whittier California, who heard a similar signal at 0122 PST (0622Z on July 7).
Sources MSG9.PDF, p. 453; Finding Amelia, p. 193
Probability Signal from Gardner: 0.001 at Hawaii; one chance in a trillion at Los Angeles/Whittier. Nicaraguan station YNN3 at Moyogalpa (3105 kHz, 50 watts): one chance in a billion at Hawaii; 0.0003 at Los Angeles and Whittier.
Qual Factors The engine-driven Electra DC generator would not have produced a rippling effect on the transmitted signal. The reported rippling was more likely due to ionospheric multi-path interference. The Nicaraguan Morse code station at Moyogalpa was the most likely source for the signal heard in California, which was not concurrent with the signals heard in Hawaii. Although Earhart’s transmitter was the most likely source of the signals heard in Hawaii, there was no plausible reason for her to key the transmitter intermittently during such a long period without sending dashes or voice. It is possible that the amateurs in Hawaii were also hearing the Nicaraguan station. There is not enough evidence to decide whether the signals came from Gardner.
Credibility Uncertain

167
Identifier 71125HD
Z Time/Date 1125 July 7
Local Time/Date 0055 HST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 0025 July 7
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Two long dashes were heard, “with weak voice in background.”
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 213.
Probability 0.5 (Gardner); less than one chance in a quadrillion for a signal from the west coast.
Qual Factors This appears to be a continuation of the pattern of dashes heard by various stations after the KGMB broadcast. Earhart’s transmitter was the only plausible source of dashes and voice signals in the central Pacific.
Credibility Credible.

168
Identifier 71210ML
Z Time/Date 1210 July 7
Local Time/Date 0410 PST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 0110 July 7
Agency/Person Charles Miguel
Location Oakland, CA
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content Claimed to hear Earhart saying “NRUI – NRUI – CALLING FROM KHAQQ ON CORAL SOUTHWEST OF UNKNOWN  ISLAND. DO NOT KNOW HOW LONG WE WILL . .  (here the voice faded)  . . KHAQQ – KHAQQ. WE ARE O.K. BUT A LITTLE . . (here the voice faded again).”
Source Oakland Tribune, July 7, 1937, p. 1.
Probability 0.000000000001744 (approximately two chances in a trillion)
Qual Factors No central Pacific stations heard this signal, nor did COMFRANDIV’s special monitoring station using two high-gain rhombic antennas. There was virtually no chance of hearing a signal from Gardner in Oakland at this time. Speculation that Earhart was on a coral island in the Phoenix Group had been in the press for days. The claimed content of this alleged signal is virtually identical to that in Identifier 71430ML below, that Miguel also claimed to have heard. Miguel was a proven hoaxer, as shown previously in this catalog.
Credibility Not Credible

169
Identifier 71220HD
Z Time/Date 1220 July 7
Local Time/Date 0150 HST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 0120 July 7
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content A weak carrier, with modulation, i.e. voice, was heard.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 214
Probability 0.5 (Gardner); 0.0000000000035 (west coast).
Qual Factors This signal appears to be similar to Identifier 71125HD, heard at Howland. Earhart’s transmitter was the only plausible source of voice signals in the central Pacific, other than Itasca.
Credibility Credible

170
Identifier 71230LC
Z Time/Date 1230 July 7
Local Time/Date 0730 EST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 0130 July 7
Agency/Person Thelma Lovelace
Location St. Stephens, New Brunswick, Canada
Freq (kHz) 15525
Content Thelma was listening to shortwave on her DeForest-Crosley radio sometime before 8 a.m. as her husband was getting ready for work. While tuning around a frequency where she usually heard a program of Japanese music every morning, she heard a voice, loud and clear, saying “Can you read me? Can you read me? This is Amelia Earhart. This is Amelia Earhart. Please come in.” Earhart then give her latitude and longitude, which Thelma wrote in a book, and continued: “we have taken in water, my navigator is badly hurt; (repeat) we are in need of medical care and must have help; we can’t hold on much longer.”
Source Correspondence with TIGHAR in 1991; List of Frequencies, 7th Ed, International Telecommunications Union, Bern, March 1937.
Probability 0.0004
Qual Factors Thelma told TIGHAR that she was unable to find the book in which she wrote Earhart’s position. However, her radio still exists, and a relative provided photos to TIGHAR. There were three Japanese shortwave broadcast stations within the radio’s tuning range: JZK (15160 kHz), JUU (15330 kHz), and JZL (17785 kHz), which implies thatthe signal Thelma heard was on a harmonic of 3105 kHz, near one of those stations. JZK and JUU were close to 15525 kHz (the 5th harmonic). But JZL was closest to 18630 kHz (the 6th harmonic), which was outside the radio’s tuning range. Therefore, 15525 kHz must have been the frequency on which Thelma heard Earhart. The propagation conditions were consistent with occasional loud and clear reception. The content of Thelma’s report is generally consistent with that of a credible Earhart signal heard on the same frequency by Dana Randolph at Rock Springs, Wyoming, on July 4. (Identifier 41500RH above).
Credibility Credible

171
Identifier 71430ML
Z Time/Date 1430 July 7
Local Time/Date 0630 PST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 0330 July 7
Agency/Person Charles Miguel
Location Oakland, CA
Freq (kHz) Not given (3105 assumed)
Content Miguel said he heard a feeble voice, that could have been from either a man or a woman, saying “NRUI ...NRUI...KHAQQ calling ... on a coral reef southwest of an unknown island ... we are OK,” then the message faded out “sputtering.”
Source New York Herald-Tribune, July 8, 1937.
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion.
Qual Factors No central Pacific stations heard this signal, nor did COMFRANDIV’s special monitoring station using two high-gain rhombic antennas. There was virtually no chance of hearing a signal from Gardner in Oakland at this time. Speculation that Earhart was on a coral island in the Phoenix Group had been in the press for days. Miguel was a proven hoaxer, as shown previously in this catalog.
Credibility Not credible.

172
Identifier 80245FZ
Z Time/Date 0245 July 8
Local Time/Date 1615 HST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 1545 July 7
Agency/Person Manuel Fernandez
Location Hilo airport, Hawaii
Freq (kHz) 1420 kHz
Content Fernandez said he heard Earhart and Noonan calling the Itasca and asking them to rush assistance as they could only last a short time longer. He also said he heard Itasca answer and tell them to hold out a while longer.
Source MSG10.PDF, pp. 484 and 486
Probability n/a
Qual Factors The transmissions Heard by Fernandez were from the March of Time program being broadcast by local radio station KHBC.
Credibility Not credible

173
Identifier 80540HS
Z Time/Date 0540 July 8
Local Time/Date 2240 MST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 1840 July 7
Agency/Person Ray Havens
Location Conrad, Montana
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Havens claimed that he heard a radio message from Earhart’s plane at 2240 MST. He said he heard a man’s voice give a position and say “All’s well.” Havens said that a few minutes later he heard another message “Position 173 west longitude and 5 south latitude. Okay, but help needed. KHAQQ,” and called the Great Falls, MT, Tribune so that, he said, someone could be notified who could quickly tune to 3105 kHz. Luke Wright, of the paper’s editorial staff, was called at home. He tuned his receiver to 3105 kHz and said they he heard a voice, presumably a man’s, but could not distinguish the words.
Source Billings, MT, Gazette, July 8, 1937; Helena, MT, Independent, July 9, 1937.
Probability Less than 1 chance in a quadrillion.
Qual Factors The reported time was two minutes after Gardner sunset at ground level, but the western part of the propagation path was still sunlit at ionospheric altitude; consequently, signal absorption loss virtually precluded reception at Conrad. No station in the central Pacific heard these signals; nor did the COMFRANDIV special monitoring station at San Francisco. If a signal from Gardner could be heard in Conrad, it also would be heard by at least one of the 6 FCC airport stations in Montana, all required to listen continuously on 3105 kHz. The position Havens reported was near Gardner, in the Phoenix Islands, but the theory that Earhart was in that area had been in the press for days, and Havens could have picked the coordinates off a map. The man’s voice that Wright heard was most likely from an aircraft talking to one of the FCC airport stations in Montana.
Credibility Not Credible

174
Identifier 80710HD
Z Time/Date 0710 July 8
Local Time/Date 2040 HST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 2010 July 7
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Hearing weak continuous wave (CW) signals.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 218
Probability 0.89 (transmitter at Gardner); 0.0009 (transmitter in Nicaragua)
Qual Factors It was possible that Howland was hearing the Nicaraguan Morse code station on 3105 kHz, at Moyogalpa. It also is possible that the weak CW signals were dashes coming from Gardner, but the report is too vague to be sure.
Credibility Uncertain

175
Identifier 80718HD
Z Time/Date 0718 July 8
Local Time/Date 2048 HST July 7
Gardner Time/Date 2018 July 7
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Heard “Weak radiotelephone signals. Talk of Earhart.”
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 218
Probability 0.89 (Gardner); 0.00000045 (west coast)
Qual Factors Explicit mention of “Earhart” suggests she was transmitting. Earhart was the only plausible central Pacific source of voice transmission on 3105 kHz.
Credibility Credible

176
Identifier 90200MS
Z Time/Date Sometime between 0200 and 0500 Z, July 9
Local Time/Date Sometime between 1800 and 2100 PST, July 8 (Monsees recollection)
Gardner Time/Date Sometime between 1500 and 1800, July 8
Agency/Person Arthur Monsees
Location San Francisco, CA
Freq (kHz) Apparently 6210 kHz.
Content Monsees said he heard a Morse code message – “SOS KHAQQ EAST HOWLAND LIGHTS TONIGHT MUST HURRY CANT HOLD” – sent twice.
Source NY Herald Tribune, July 9, 1937, p.4, and Monsees correspondence with TIGHAR, November, 2000.
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion during the period.
Qual Factors The nearest land east of Howland is Christmas Island, at a distance of about 1200 miles, which Earhart could not have reached with her remaining fuel. Hence “east Howland” would mean the plane was on water; but the transmitter could not operate in that case. Monsees told TIGHAR the Morse code was sent at about 8 words per minute, and was “sloppy” but readable, “almost solid copy,” and “receiving conditions were excellent.” However, neither Earhart nor Noonan could send Morse code even at a modest speed. Furthermore, sending Morse code at 8 words per minute using the transmitter push-to-talk button would require pushing the button about 40 times per minute, which would be very difficult. And, Monsees’ description of the reception conditions is not consistent with the propagation conditions that existed at the time.
Credibility Not credible.

177
Identifier 90300AD
Z Time/Date 0300 July 9
Local Time/Date 2100 CST July 8
Gardner Time/Date 1600 July 8
Agency/Person Mrs. Joe Arnold
Location Okmulgee, Oklahoma
Freq (kHz) Unspecified
Content Mrs. Arnold and her daughter said they heard a shortwave radio message shortly after 9 p.m. in which a woman’s voice, weak but distinguishable, repeated the call letters KHAQQ and said: “We’re suffering but holding on. Couldn’t see Howland Island. This is Amelia Earhart calling the Itasca.” Mrs. Arnold said they heard only parts of the transmission because of static and interference.
Source Okmulgee Times, July 9, 1937; Radio Index Magazine, May 1937; Radio Index Magazine, November 1937; March Of Time radio program script.
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion on 6210 kHz (Earhart’s day frequency) and all harmonics up to 24840 kHz.
Qual Factors No stations in the central Pacific heard this signal, nor did COMFRANDIV’s special receiving station at San Francisco. Propagation conditions virtually precluded hearing a signal from Gardner. However, there was a March Of Time radio theater broadcast on Oklahoma City station KOMA the evening of July 8. The script contains phrases closely matching those reported: “KHAQQ calling Itasca – KHAQQ – Amelia Earhart – calling Itasca – we must be right near you, but cannot see you,” and “SOS . . . SOS . . . can’t hold out much longer.” The evidence suggests Mrs. Arnold and her daughter were hearing the March Of Time broadcast.
Credibility Not credible.

178
Identifier 90300RD
Z Time/Date 0300 July 9
Local Time/Date 2100 CST July 8
Gardner Time/Date 1600 July 8
Agency/Person Mr. And Mrs. George Roland
Location Schulter, Oklahoma (8 miles south of Okmulgee, Oklahoma)
Freq (kHz) Unspecified
Content The Rolands said they heard a voice which said “Amelia Earhart, SOS, calling SOS. Can’t last much longer.” Like the Arnolds in signal 176 above, they said they could hear only a part of the message because of static.
Source Okmulgee Times, July 9, 1937; Radio Index Magazine, May 1937; Radio Index Magazine, November 1937; March Of Time radio program script.
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion on 6210 kHz (Earhart’s day frequency) and all harmonics up to 24840 kHz.
Qual Factors No stations in the central Pacific heard this signal, nor did COMFRANDIV’s special receiving station at San Francisco. Propagation conditions virtually precluded hearing a signal from Gardner. However, there was a March Of Time radio theater broadcast on Oklahoma City station KOMA the evening of July 8. The script contains phrases closely matching those reported by the Rolands: “Amelia Earhart – calling,” and “SOS . . . SOS . . . can’t hold out much longer.” The evidence suggests the Rolands also were hearing the March Of Time broadcast.
Credibility Not credible.

179
Identifier 90712HD
Z Time/Date 0712 July 9
Local Time/Date 2042 HST July 8
Gardner Time/Date 2012 July 8
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Weak radiophone signal
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 221
Probability 0.97
Qual Factors The reception probability suggests a much stronger signal would be heard if it originated at Gardner. It is possible Howland was hearing a signal from a west coast aircraft. Absent details of content, this signal cannot be assessed as coming from Gardner.
Credibility Uncertain

180
Identifier 90800FS
Z Time/Date Sometime between 0800 and 1400 July 9
Local Time/Date Sometime between 0000 and 0600 PST July 9
Gardner Time/Date Sometime between 2100 July 8 and 0300 July 9
Agency/Person Frank Freitas
Location 20 miles east of Yreka, California
Freq (kHz) Unspecified
Content Freitas called the local telephone office in Yreka, claiming he heard voice signals coming from the Earhart plane and recognized the voice of Amelia Earhart, having heard it before. He claimed she said the plane was on a reef 200 miles directly south of Howland and that both were OK and the plane had one wing broken.
Source MSG10.PDF, p. 529
Probability 3105 kHz: less than 1 chance in a quadrillion, at all times; 15525 kHz: 0.0001 at 0000Z, decreasing to 0.00000002 at 0600Z.
Qual Factors Freitas did not give the frequency on which he allegedly heard Earhart. The propagation conditions virtually precluded reception on 3105 kHz. Reception on 15525 kHz (a plausible frequency if Freitas was tuning the nearby shortwave broadcast band) was feasible, albeit it uncertain, during the period. However, the nearest land directly south of Howland was more than 600 miles away. The theory that Earhart was on a coral reef had been in the press for several days. This report appears to be a hoax.
Credibility Not credible

181
Identifier 90844HD
Z Time/Date 0844 July 9
Local Time/Date 2214 HST July 8
Gardner Time/Date 2244 July 8
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Weak voice signal.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 221
Probability 0.73
Qual Factors The reception probability suggests a much stronger signal would be heard if it originated at Gardner. It is possible Howland was hearing a signal from a west coast aircraft. Absent details of content, this signal cannot be assessed as coming from Gardner.
Credibility Uncertain

182
Identifier 10xxxxUN
Z Time/Date Unknown, apparently July 10 or 11
Local Time/Date Unknown time on July 10
Gardner Time/Date Unknown
Agency/Person Unspecified radio amateur
Location Callao, Peru
Freq (kHz) 1400
Content The reporting person claimed to have heard an Earhart message stating position “23 grados al oeste de la isla de Howland,” and also stated “frequency 1400 kilocycles 19 meters” according to All-America Cables, Inc, presumably in Peru. The position translates to “23 degrees west of Howland Island.”
Source MSG10.PDF, p. 535
Probability n/a
Qual Factors The stated position makes no sense. 23 degrees would be a distance of about 1400 miles. The frequency 1400 kilocycles (kHz) is in the standard broadcast band and suggests the signal heard was part of a March Of Time broadcast. The “19 meters” mention may refer to the 19 meter shortwave broadcast band, 15100 kHz to 15350 kHz, and might suggest a March Of Time broadcast had been heard concurrently with a broadcast on 1400 kHz. It is not plausible for the alleged signal to have originated at Gardner; a plane from the USS Colorado searched the island on July 9, and found no evidence that the plane was there.
Credibility Not credible

Background   |   Messages July 3, 1 – 47   |   Messages July 4, 48 – 91
Messages July 5, 92 – 144   |   Messages July 6 – 10, 145–182

Research Papers Earhart Project Home Page

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