Catalog and Analysis of Radio Signals
During The Search for Amelia Earhart in July 1937

Signals July 3

The Signal Identifier number is divided into these elements:

Day Time Source
3 0006 IA
(July) 24hr List

  • Identifiers in BLUE are TRANSMISSIONS to Earhart.
  • Identifiers in RED are reported receptions that are judged to be NOT CREDIBLE.
  • Identifiers in BLACK are reported receptions the credibility of which are judged to be UNCERTAIN.
  • Identifiers in GREEN are reported receptions that are judged to be CREDIBLE.

1–30006IA 2–30010IA 3–30200MC 4–30400PN 5–30420IA 6–30425IA 7–30427IA 8–30437IA 9–30517PU 10–30530IA
11–30531IA 12–30537IA 13–30542IA 14–30555PU 15–30555IA 16–30600IA 17–30600AS 18–30600NW 19–30604IA 20–30606IA
21–30607IA 22–30608IA 23–30615IA 24–30630IA 25–30635IA 26–30727CC 27–30800CC 28–30800LE 29–30831NA 30–30833IA
31–30835IA 32–30837IA 33–30840IA 34–30843NA 35–30843IA 36–30854NA 37–30900IA 38–30916IA 39–30920MC 40–30958IA
41–31057CC 42–31115MC 43–31119IA 44–31330CF 45–31455ML 46–31655BL 47–31900PX      

1
Identifier 30006IA
Z Time/Date 0006 July 3
Local Time/Date 1236 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1306 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca

Location At sea
Freq (kHz) 500 kHz
Content Itasca sent 3 sets of “V”s, followed by a short dash and asked Earhart, in Morse code, to answer on 3105 kHz. No response.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 99
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

2
Identifier 30010IA
Z Time/Date 0010 July 3
Local Time/Date 1240 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1310 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) 500 kHz
Content Itasca sent 3 sets of “V”s, followed by a short dash and asked Earhart. In Morse code, to answer on 3105 kHz. No response.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 99
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

3
Identifier 30200MC
Z Time/Date 0200 July 3
Local Time/Date 1800 PST July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1500 July 2
Agency/Person Walter McMenamy, radio amateur
Location Los Angeles
Freq (kHz) 6210
Content McMenamy said he picked up weak signals and heard the letters “L-A-T” which he took to mean latitude. The letters were followed by undecipherable figures. He said the signals continued for some time.
Source Associated Press wire story, July 2, 1937 (in New York Herald Tribune, July 3, 1937), and Finding Amelia, p.123.
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion.
Qual Factors No station in the Central Pacific heard this alleged signal. Given the propagation conditions – the western part of the path was in daylight, the remainder in darkness – it was not plausible for McMenamy to hear a signal on 6210 kHz. McMenamy said the signals came “from a hand-cranked generator Miss Earhart carried on her plane.” There was no such generator.
Credibility Not Credible.

4
Identifier 30400PN
Z Time/Date 0400 July 3
Local Time/Date 2000 PST July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1700 July 2
Agency/Person Karl Pierson, radio amateur
Location Los Angeles
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Pierson said he picked up weak signals similar to those allegedly heard by McMenamy at 1800 PST (Identifier 30200MC), but that they were “erratic and undecipherable.”
Source Associated Press wire story, July 2, 1937 (in New York Herald Tribune, July 3, 1937), and Finding Amelia, p.123.
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion.
Qual Factors No station in the Central Pacific heard this alleged signal. Given the propagation conditions – the western part of the path was in daylight, the remainder in darkness – it was not plausible for Pierson to hear a signal on 3105 kHz. Pierson, as had McMenamy at 1800 PST, said the signals came “from a hand-cranked generator Miss Earhart carried on her plane.” There was no such generator. Pierson and McMenamy were close associates and were apparently perpetrating a hoax.
Credibility Not Credible

5
Identifier 30420IA
Z Time/Date 0420 July 3
Local Time/Date 1650 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1720 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca transmitted to Earhart, content unspecified. Assume same as preceding transmissions.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 110
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

6
Identifier 30425IA
Z Time/Date 0425 July 3
Local Time/Date 1655 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1725 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) 3105 kHz
Content Itasca asked Earhart to answer on 500 kHz, 3105 kHz, or 6210 kHz, and told her they were searching for her.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 110
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

7
Identifier 30427IA
Z Time/Date 0427 July 3
Local Time/Date 1657 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1727 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) Not stated; assume same as preceding case (3105 kHz).
Content Itasca asked Earhart to answer on 3105 kHz, 6210 kHz, or 500 kHz, and said they were listening and searching for her.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 111
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

8
Identifier 30437IA
Z Time/Date 0437 July 3
Local Time/Date 1707 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1737 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) Not stated; assume 3105 kHz
Content Itasca asked Earhart to answer on 3105 kHz, 6210 kHz, or 500 kHz, and said they were listening and searching for her.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 111
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

9
Identifier 30517PU
Z time/date 0517 July 3
Local time/date 1847 July 2
Gardner time/date 1817 July 2
Agency/Person Pan American Airways radio direction finding station
Location Mokapu Point, Oahu, Hawaii
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Heard some tests. Steady carrier, no modulation discernable.
Source Pan Am memo from Section Supervisor, Communications, Honolulu to Division Superintendent, Communications, Alameda dated July 10, 1937.
Probability 0.45
Qual factors This signal could have been Earhart testing her transmitter just prior to sunset (0538Z) in preparation for night radio operations. It also could have been one of the Morse Code radio stations in Nicaragua. Although the signal strength at Mokapu for a signal from Nicaragua was much less than for a signal from Gardner, it was possible for Mokapu to hear a Nicaraguan station. There is insufficient evidence to decide whether Mokapu was hearing Earhart’s transmitter.
Credibility Uncertain

10
Identifier 30530IA
Z Time/Date 0530 July 3
Local Time/Date 1800 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1830 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Weak unreadable voice on 3105.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 114
Probability 0.99 for signal from Gardner, 0.1 for signal from west coast aircraft.
Qual Factors The Pan Am HFDF station at Mokapu Point, Oahu, was listening on 3105 kHz at this time but did not hear this signal. Itasca, 3 days later on July 6, reported definitely hearing west coast aircraft, which Mokapu did not hear. This suggests Itasca could have been hearing west coast aircraft voice signals on July 3. The computed reception probability weighs in favor of the signal coming from Gardner, but there is insufficient evidence to rule out west coast aircraft.
Credibility Uncertain

11
Identifier 30531IA
Z Time/Date 0531 July 3
Local Time/Date 1801 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1831 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) 3105 kHz
Content Itasca asked Earhart (in Morse code) to repeat on 3105 kHz, apparently believing the signal heard at 0530Z (Identifier 30530IA) was from her. Note: Earhart was not proficient in Morse code.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 114
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

12
Identifier 30537IA
Z Time/Date 0537 July 3
Local Time/Date 1807 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1837 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) 3105 kHz
Content Itasca asked Earhart to transmit again on 3105 kHz.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 115
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

13
Identifier 30542IA
Z Time/Date 0542 July 3
Local Time/Date 1812 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1842 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 7500
Content Itasca – in Morse code – asked Earhart to transmit on 3105 kHz. She did not know Morse code, and therefore could not understand this message.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 115
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

14
Identifier 30555PU
Z time/date 0555 July 3
Local time/date 1925 July 2
Gardner time/date 1855 July 2
Agency/Person Pan American Airways radio direction finding station
Location Mokapu Point, Oahu, Hawaii
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Steady carrier, no modulation discernable
Source Pan Am memo from Section Supervisor, Communications, Honolulu to Division Superintendent, Communications, Alameda dated July 10, 1937
Probability 0.57
Qual factors Although this was simultaneous with the voice signal heard by Itasca on 3105 kHz (Identifier 30600IA), the unmodulated carrier could have been a Nicaraguan station.
Credibility Uncertain

15
Identifier 30555IA
Z time/date 0555 July 3
Local time/date 1825 July 2
Gardner time/date 1855 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content “We hear her on 3105 Kcs now, very weak and unreadable/voice.”
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 115
Probability 0.99
Qual factors Itasca apparently recognized Earhart’s voice, even though the words were not understandable. Itasca had heard Earhart clearly earlier in the day, when she was trying to find Howland Island.
Credibility Credible

16
Identifier 30600IA
Z Time/Date 0600 July 3
Local Time/Date 1830 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1900 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location At sea
Freq (kHz) 3105 and 7500
Content Itasca, in voice, asked Earhart to send a series of long dashes. Itasca also sent a message to Earhart at the same time, in Morse code on 7500 kHz, asking her to give her position on 3105 kHz. Earhart did not know Morse code, and could not have understood this request even if she was listening on 7500 kHz.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 116
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

17
Identifier 30600AS
Z Time/Date 0600 July 3
Local Time/Date Unknown, July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1900 July 2
Agency/Person HMS Achilles, British Royal Navy warship
Location At 0700 Z, Latitude 10.00 S, Longitude 160.50 W at 0700Z
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Achilles heard a station transmitting in voice on 3105 kHz at 0600Z July 3, requesting an unknown station to send dashes. Achilles then heard a second transmitter sending dashes on the same frequency, with signal strength “good.” Achilles then heard the first transmitter say “KHAQQ” (Earhart’s radio call sign) twice, and fade out. Achilles said that the evidence suggests either of these signals could have been from Earhart’s plane.
Source MSG8.PDF, p. 312
Probability 0.94
Qual Factors Achilles apparently did not know that the Coast Guard cutter Itasca was the station requesting dashes (see Identifier 30600IA). Itasca later confirmed that the voice request for dashes heard by Achilles was sent by Itasca. Achilles’ assessment of the responding dashes as “good” is consistent with the computed reception probability. The only plausible explanation for the responding dashes is that they were sent from Earhart’s plane (KHAQQ).
Credibility Credible

18
Identifier 30600NW
Z Time/Date 0600 July 3 (Time not given in report source; derived by TIGHAR analysis)
Local Time/Date Unknown
Gardner Time/Date 1900 July 2
Agency/Person Cargo Liner New Zealand Star, Blue Star Lines Ltd
Location 1200 miles from Howland Island. Position coordinates not specified.
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content “Steamer New Zealand 1200 miles from Howland Island reports hearing dashes on 3105.”
Source COMFRANDIV (MSG8.PDF, p. 319)
Probability 0.94
Qual Factors The New Zealand, a UK trawler, was scrapped in February 1937, hence was not the reporting ship (see Hull Trawlers). However, the New Zealand Star was in service transporting beef from Buenos Aires to Australia and New Zealand (see Blue Star Lines), via the Panama Canal (see Blue Star Ships List). The direct routes to Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, were within 1300 and 1400 miles, respectively, southeast of Howland, so it was plausible for a ship on either route to be 1200 miles from Howland. On the other hand, the routes to New Zealand ports were at least 1900 miles from Howland. At 0600Z, HMS Achilles (Identifier 30600AS above) was 1200 miles southeast of Howland. Signal propagation analysis shows the reception probability then was the same at 1200 miles everywhere in the southeast quadrant from Howland. But conditions deteriorated after 0600Z, and by 0800Z reception at 1200 miles was highly unlikely. Since the only signal Achilles heard was at 0600Z, the evidence suggests that the New Zealand Star was 1200 miles from Howland then, enroute to or from Australia, and heard the same signal as Achilles. Other stations reported hearing dashes on this date at 0727Z (Identifier 30727CC), and 0800Z (Identifier 30800CC).
Credibility Credible

19
Identifier 30604IA
Z Time/Date 0604-0606 July 3
Local Time/Date 1834-1836 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1904-1906 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca heard a signal sounding “something like generator start and then stop” on 3105 at 0604Z and again at 0605Z.
Source RAD0703.PDF, P. 116
Probability 0.99
Qual Factors The timing and characteristics of these signals suggest Itasca was hearing Earhart’s response to Itasca’s request for dashes. The dashes were heard by HMS Achilles which also heard Itasca’s request. Itasca’s failure to hear the dashes as clearly as Achilles implies a problem with Itasca’s antennas or receivers, which would account for Itasca’s consistent failure to clearly hear signals heard at other central Pacific stations and which should have been heard by Itasca. COMFRANDIV had cautioned Itasca about the possibility of such a problem on June 25. (MSG7.PDF, p. 260)
Credibility Credible

20
Identifier 30606IA
Z Time/Date 0606 July 3
Local Time/Date 1836 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1906 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105 kHz
Content Itasca asked Earhart – in Morse code – to give her position and a series of long dashes on 3105 kHz. Earhart did not know Morse code, and could not have understood this message.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 116
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

21
Identifier 30607IA
Z Time/Date 0607-0610 July 3
Local Time/Date 1837-1840 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1907-1910 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca continued to hear signals apparently responding to the 0600Z request for Earhart to send dashes (see Identifier 30542IA). There were unreadable signals, then dashes, then the word “Earhart,” followed by more unreadable signals. The Itasca operator finally concluded that he was not hearing signals from Earhart.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 116
Probability 0.99
Qual Factors Given the context of HMS Achilles’ report (Identifier 30600AS), and the sequence of signals heard by Itasca, including the word “Earhart,” it is clear that the Itasca operator – who was unaware of what Achilles had heard – was mistaken. He apparently was unaware that Itasca and Earhart were the only plausible sources of voice signals on 3105 kHz in the central Pacific. The weight of evidence is consistent with these signals being sent by Earhart.
Credibility Credible

22
Identifier 30608IA
Z Time/Date 0608 July 3
Local Time/Date 1838 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1908 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105 kHz
Content Itasca called Earhart, using both voice and Morse code. Content unspecified.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 116
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

23
Identifier 30615IA
Z Time/Date 0615 July 3
Local Time/Date 1845 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1915 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Called Earhart, using voice. No details given.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 117
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

24
Identifier 30630IA
Z Time/Date 0630 July 3
Local Time/Date 1900 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1930 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca call Earhart, asking her to send up a flare.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 118
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

25
Identifier 30635IA
Z Time/Date 0635 July 3
Local Time/Date 1905 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 1935 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 7500
Content Itasca called Earhart, in Morse code, asking her to send up a flare. (Earhart did not know Morse code.)
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 118
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

26
Identifier 30727CC
Z Time/Date 0727 July 3
Local Time/Date 2057 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2027 July 2
Agency/Person Coast Guard Commander, Hawaiian Sector (COMHAWSEC)
Location Honolulu, Hawaii
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content At 0802Z COMHAWSEC relayed to Itasca a report by the Army radio station at Fort Shafter, Oahu, of a signal heard there at 0727Z, consisting of a series of long dashes on or about 3105 kHz.
Source MSG8.PDF, p. 313
Probability 0.06
Qual Factors Itasca had sent a voice signal to Earhart on 3105 kHz at 0600Z, requesting her to send a series of long dashes (Identifier 30600IA). The dashes heard at Fort Shafter appear to be a delayed Earhart response to Itasca’s request, or one of a series of Earhart responses to Itasca’s request. There is no plausible explanation for any other station to be sending long dashes on 3105 kHz.
Credibility Credible.

27
Identifier 30800CC
Z Time/Date 0800 July 3
Local Time/Date 2130 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2100 July 2
Agency/Person Coast Guard Commander, Hawaiian Sector (COMHAWSEC)
Location Honolulu
Freq (kHz) 6210
Content At 0810Z, COMHAWSEC advised Itasca that signals were heard at 0800Z, on 6210 kHz, consisting of long dashes and weak voice.
Source MSG8.PDF, p. 314
Probability 0.28
Qual Factors COMHAWSEC could have heard the signal on the second harmonic of 3105 kHz, Earhart’s night frequency. It also is possible that Earhart was transmitting on 6210 kHz, her day frequency, hoping someone would hear her. Although the weak voice signals could have been from west coast aircraft, Earhart was the only plausible source of long dashes.
Credibility Credible

28
Identifier 30800LE
Z Time/Date 0800-0845 July 3 (times estimated from info in source material)
Local Time/Date 0200-0245 CST July 3
Gardner Time/Date 2100-2145 July 2
Agency/Person Mrs. Mabel Larremore
Location Amarillo, Texas
Freq (kHz) unknown
Content “On the first night of Amelia Earhart’s disappearance I heard her SOS loud and clear, not on the frequency but on the one President Roosevelt said she might use. Her message stated the plane was down on an uncharted island. Small, uninhabited. The plane was partially on land, part in water. She gave the latitude and longitude of her location. I listened to her for 30-45 minutes.… I heard her message around 2 A.M. daylight saving time from my home in Amarillo, Texas. She stated that her navigator Fred Noonan was seriously injured. Needed help immediately. She also had some injuries but not as serious as Mr. Noonan.”
Source Letter to TIGHAR dated October 11, 1990, and Finding Amelia, p.118.
Probability 3105 kHz: 0.00000000013; 6210 kHz: 0.000022; 9315 kHz: 0.00019; 12420 kHz: 0.00026; 15525 kHz: 0.0083.
Qual Factors Mabel did not come forward with her story until 1990, and some of her recollections are not consistent with the historical record. On the other hand, Nauru (Identifier #s 30831NA and 30843NA) and Itasca (Identifier 30843IA) reported credible voice transmissions during the time Mabel claimed to have heard Earhart. In 1990, that information had not yet been compiled, let alone published. Reception was possible on all frequencies listed above, with 15525 kHz being the most likely. This frequency also was near a band containing shortwave broadcast stations, and could explain why Larremore was tuning there. Despite the erroneous remark attributed to President Roosevelt, much of the content matches signal characteristics in other reports found to be credible – see reports by Dana Randolph (41500RH) and Betty Klenck (52130KK).
Credibility Credible

29
Identifier 30831NA
Z Time/Date 0831 July 3
Local Time/Date 1831 Sydney time, July3
Gardner Time/Date 2131 July 2
Agency/Person Nauru Radio (Amalgamated Wireless station)
Location Nauru Island, near midpoint of Earhart’s planned route to Howland Island.
Freq (kHz) 6210 [second harmonic of 3105]
Content Nauru reported hearing fairly strong signals, voice not intelligible, no hum of plane in background but voice similar to that emitted from the plane in flight the previous night. (This is the first of three such signals heard by Nauru that night.)
Source Telegram from American Consul Sydney Australia to Secretary of State, Washington, DC; MSG8.PDF, p. 318.
Probability 0.88
Qual Factors The “hum” that Nauru heard the previous night is consistent with the background noise of the plane’s engines in flight. The absence of that noise in the signal reported by Nauru is consistent with the plane’s engines not running at the same power level as in flight, but rather a single engine running at low speed to keep the batteries charged, which could only be the case if the plane was on land. Earhart passed south of Nauru the previous night and Nauru heard her then, saying she had sighted a ship ahead (see source above). The similarity of the voice heard the second night suggests it was Earhart.
Credibility Credible

30
Identifier 30833IA
Z Time/Date 0833 July 3
Local Time/Date 2103 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2133 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca heard weak and unreadable signals. Later log entries indicate this was a voice signal.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 123, and Finding Amelia, p.120
Probability 0.89
Qual Factors The tide level at Gardner permitted engine operation. Although weak voice signals were heard, there is insufficient evidence to rule out west coast aircraft as the source.
Credibility Uncertain

31
Identifier 30835IA
Z Time/Date 0835 July 3
Local Time/Date 2105 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2135 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca, responding to the weak unreadable signal voice signal heard at 0833Z, asked Earhart to repeat the message.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 123
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

32
Identifier 30837IA
Z Time/Date 0837 July 3
Local Time/Date 2107 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2137 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca continues to hear weak voice signals on 3105.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 123
Probability 0.89
Qual Factors Although weak voice signals were heard, there is insufficient evidence to rule out west coast aircraft as the source(s).
Credibility Uncertain

33
Identifier 30840IA
Z Time/Date 0840 July 3
Local Time/Date 2110 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2140 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca, unable to understand the weak voice signal they heard, sent a request for Earhart to send her position in Morse code. (Note: Earhart did not know Morse code, so couldn’t comply if she heard this transmission).
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 123
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

34
Identifier 30843NA
Z Time/Date 0843 July 3
Local Time/Date 1843 Sydney time, July 3 (Nauru was on Sydney time)
Gardner Time/Date 2143 July 2
Agency/Person Nauru Radio (Amalgamated Wireless station)
Location Nauru Island, near midpoint of Earhart’s planned route to Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 6210 [second harmonic of 3105]
Content Nauru reported hearing fairly strong signals, voice not intelligible, no hum of plane in background but voice similar to that emitted from the plane in flight the previous night. (This is the second of three such signals heard by Nauru that night.)
Source Telegram from American Consul Sydney Australia to Secretary of State, Washington, DC; MSG8.PDF, p. 318
Probability 0.88
Qual Factors The “hum” that Nauru heard the previous night is consistent with the background noise of the plane’s engines in flight. The absence of that noise in the signal reported by Nauru is consistent with the plane’s engines not running at the same power level as in flight, but rather a single engine running at low speed to keep the batteries charged, which could only be the case if the plane was on land somewhere. Earhart passed south of Nauru the previous night and Nauru heard her then, saying she had sighted a ship ahead (see source above). The similarity of the voice heard the second night suggests it was Earhart.
Credibility Credible

35
Identifier 30843IA
Z Time/Date 0843 July 3
Local Time/Date 2113 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2143 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca still hears unreadable voice signals.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 123
Probability 0.89 (origin Gardner); 0.000000000009 (origin west coast)
Qual Factors Although weak voice signals were heard, that fact alone is insufficient to rule out west coast aircraft as the source. However, Itasca heard this signal at the same time Nauru heard Earhart on 6210 kHz. The simultaneity of these signals suggests Earhart was transmitting on 3105 kHz, and that Nauru was hearing the second harmonic. The fact that Itasca could not make out what was being said, given the reception probability and attendant high signal strength at Itasca, tends to confirm COMFRANDIV’s conclusion that there was a problem with Itasca’s radio receivers or antennas.
Credibility Credible

36
Identifier 30854NA
Z Time/Date 0854 July 3
Local Time/Date 1854 Sydney time, July 3 (Nauru was on Sydney time)
Gardner Time/Date 2154 July 2
Agency/Person Nauru Radio (Amalgamated Wireless station)
Location Nauru Island, near midpoint of Earhart’s planned route to Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 6210 [second harmonic of 3105]
Content Nauru reported hearing fairly strong signals, voice not intelligible, no hum of plane in background but voice similar to that emitted from the plane in flight the previous night. (This is the third of three such signals heard by Nauru that night.)
Source Telegram from American Consul Sydney Australia to Secretary of State, Washington, DC; MSG8.PDF, p. 318.
Probability 0.88
Qual Factors The “hum” that Nauru heard the previous night is consistent with the background noise of the plane’s engines in flight. The absence of that noise in the signal reported by Nauru is consistent with the plane’s engines not running at the same power level as in flight, but rather a single engine running at low speed to keep the batteries charged, which could only be the case if the plane was on land. Earhart passed south of Nauru the previous night and Nauru heard her then, saying she had sighted a ship ahead (see source above). The similarity of the voice heard the second night suggests it was Earhart.
Credibility Credible

37
Identifier 30900IA
Z Time/Date 0900 July 3
Local Time/Date 2130 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2200 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca again heard weak, unreadable, voice signals.
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 124
Probability 0.89
Qual Factors Although weak voice signals were heard, that fact alone is insufficient to rule out west coast aircraft.
Credibility Uncertain

38
Identifier 30916IA
Z Time/Date 0916 July 3
Local Time/Date 2146 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2216 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca transmitted to Earhart. No details provided in log.
Source RAD0703PDF, p. 125
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

39
Identifier 30920MC
Z Time/Date 0920 July 3
Local Time/Date 0120 PST July 3
Gardner Time/Date 2220 July 2
Agency/Person Walter McMenamy, Karl Pierson, Kenneth Bartell, and Robert Rypinski
Location Los Angeles
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content COMFRANDIV told Itasca “four separate radio men at Los Angeles reported receiving Earhart voice this morning and verify ‘179 with 1.6 in doubt’ position given as ‘southwest Howland Island’ heard on 3105 kcs and call of plane distinctly heard and verified according to amateurs.” The time of reception of the alleged signal was not in this report, but was later determined by COMFRANDIV to be 0920Z July 3, based on a follow-up investigation.
Source MSG8.PDF, p. 350 and MSG10.PDF, p. 528, and Finding Amelia, pp.123 and 215.
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion.
Qual Factors The propagation conditions made it extremely unlikely that a signal from Gardner could be heard in Los Angeles. The four amateurs were Walter McMenamy, Karl Pierson, Kenneth Bartell, and Robert Rypinski. All were members of the same amateur radio club. McMenamy, Pierson, and Rypinski were at the same location from shortly after 11:00 pm PST July 2, and Bartell may have been with them. McMenamy later confessed [on tape recording in the TIGHAR archive] that he and his friends were hoaxers. This alleged signal was not heard at COMFRANDIV, where a continuous listening watch was maintained, or at any central Pacific station.
Credibility Not credible.

40
Identifier 30958IA
Z Time/Date 0958 July 3
Local Time/Date 2228 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 2258 July 2
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca transmitted to Earhart, requesting her to respond either in voice or Morse code. (Earhart did not know Morse code.)
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 125
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

41
Identifier 31057CC
Z Time/Date 1057 July 3
Local Time/Date 0027 July 3
Gardner Time/Date 2357 July 2
Agency/Person Coast Guard Commander Hawaiian Sector (COMHAWSEC)
Location Honolulu, Hawaii
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content COMHAWSEC heard a series of long dashes, lasting 22 seconds. The sender’s call sign was not heard.
Source MSG8.PDF, p. 319
Probability 0.007
Qual Factors There was no plausible reason for anyone but Earhart to send long dashes on 3105 kHz
Credibility Credible

42
Identifier 31115MC
Z time/date 1115 July 2
Local time/date 0315 July 2
Gardner time/date 0015 July 2
Agency/Person Walter McMenamy and Robert Rypinski, radio amateurs
Location Los Angeles, CA
Freq (kHz) Not given.
Content McMenamy claimed to have heard Earhart saying "KHAQQ – SOS – southwest Howland” at 3:15 a.m. PST, “last Friday morning.”
Source Associated Press (AP) wire story Los Angeles, July 7, 1937, published in NY Herald Tribune.
Probability n/a.
Qual factors McMenamy misspoke when he said on July 7 that he had heard Earhart at 3:15 a.m. PST “last Friday morning.” That would be July 2 and, at that time, Earhart was still in flight. McMenamy’s associate Karl Pierson had previously claimed to have heard Earhart early Saturday morning, July 3 (Identifier 30400PN). The July 7 report appears to be an embellishment of the earlier report which has been shown to be a hoax.
Credibility Not credible.

43
Identifier 31119IA
Z Time/Date 1119 July 3
Local Time/Date 2349 July 2
Gardner Time/Date 0019 July 3
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca transmitted to Earhart, requesting her to respond in voice or Morse Code. (Earhart did not know Morse code.)
Source RAD0703.PDF, p. 128
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

44
Identifier 31330CF
Z Time/Date 1330 July 3
Local Time/Date 0530 PST July 3
Gardner Time/Date 0230 July 3
Agency/Person CGFS
Location Los Angeles
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content San Francisco Coast Guard radio informed Itasca that four separate radio amateurs (not identified) reported hearing a woman’s voice on 3105 kHz, giving her position as “southwest Howland Island.” The time at which the signal was heard was not given in this report, but subsequently was reported, on July 12, as 1330Z on July 3.
Source MSG8.PDF, p. 350; MSG10.PDF, p. 520; Finding Amelia, p.125
Probability Less than one chance in a quadrillion.
Qual Factors The propagation conditions did not permit hearing Earhart. The four amateurs were Walter McMenamy, Karl Pierson, Kenneth Bartell, and Robert Rypinski. All were members of the same amateur radio club. This clearly was a hoax.
Credibility Not credible.

45
Identifier 31455ML
Z Time/Date 1455 July 3
Local Time/Date 0655 PST July 3
Gardner Time/Date 0355 July 3
Agency/Person Charles Miguel
Location Oakland, CA
Freq (kHz) “about 86 meters” (3488 kHz)
Content COMFRANDIV reported receiving a telephone report from a “Charles McGill,” amateur call sign W6CHI, in Oakland, who said he heard SOS calls from Earhart “on about 86 meters,” saying she was at a point 225 miles north northwest of Howland Island, and asking Putnam to fly a kite. The 1935 Radio Amateur Call Book shows call sign W6CHI was assigned to Charles Miguel of Oakland. Apparently, the person who took the call at COMFRANDIV misunderstood “Miguel” as “McGill.”
Source MSG8.PDF, p. 328; Radio Amateur Callbook 1935; Finding Amelia, p.126.
Probability n/a
Qual Factors There is no land within 250 miles of the reported point. The plane could not transmit if on water. The Oakland Tribune (July 6, 1937) reported that Miguel’s amateur license (W6CHI) expired in December 1936. Therefore, he did not hold W6CHI when he called COMFRANDIV. A Coast Guard investigation found that another report by Miguel was false, and that his reputation was “extremely dubious” (MSG9.PDF, p. 436). Miguel clearly was a hoaxer.
Credibility Not Credible

46
Identifier 31655BL
Z Time/Date 1655 July 3
Local Time/Date 0855 PST July 3
Gardner Time/Date 0555 July 3
Agency/Person Kenneth Bartell and Walter McMenamy
Location Los Angeles
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content Bartell said he heard signals from KHAQQ, in a man’s voice, which he believed to be Noonan. McMenamy said he also heard Noonan’s voice at this time, and that Earhart previously had sent distress calls at 15-minute intervals during the night and early morning.
Source United Press wire story, in Oakland Tribune, July 3, 1937; and Finding Amelia, p.125.
Probability At 3105 kHz, less than one chance in a quadrillion until 1655Z, when the probability was zero because the entire propagation path was then in sunlight. At 6210 kHz, about one chance in ten thousand until 1400Z, one chance in a quadrillion at 1500Z, and zero at 1655Z because the entire propagation path was then in sunlight.
Qual Factors Reception on either 3105 kHz or 6210 kHz was impossible at 1655Z. As noted previously in this catalog, McMenamy was a hoaxer, and Bartell may have been present at the same location with McMenamy, Pierson, and Rypinski. This report clearly was a hoax.
Credibility Not Credible

47
Identifier 31900PX
Z Time/Date 1900 July 3
Local Time/Date 1400 July 3
Gardner Time/Date 0800 July 3
Agency/Person Nina Paxton
Location Ashland, Kentucky
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content Mrs. Paxton claimed to have heard Earhart say “down in ocean,” then “on or near little island at a point near …,” then something about “directly northeast,” and “our plane about out of gas. Water all around. Very dark.” Then something about a storm and that the wind was blowing, “will have to get out of here,” “we can’t stay here long.”
Source Ashland, Kentucky, Daily Independent, July 9, 1937; Finding Amelia, pp. 126-127.
Probability 0.003 on 24,840 kHz, the 4th harmonic of Earhart’s day frequency (6210 kHz); less than one chance in a quadrillion on any lower frequency.
Qual Factors Paxton made repeated attempts to get someone to pay attention to her story and, in later years, greatly embellished it with details that are not credible – but her original account as reported in July 1937 is credible. Reception was possible on 24,840 kHz. Earhart could not transmit if she was “down in ocean” but Paxton says she also heard “on or near little island,” so she could be referring to the reef at Gardner which is in the ocean and could be described as being “on or near” the island. The phrase “very dark” could refer to an approaching squall.
Credibility Credible


Background   |   Messages July 3, 1 – 47   |   Messages July 4, 48 – 91
Messages July 5, 92 – 144   |   Messages July 6 – 10, 145–182

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