Catalog and Analysis of Radio Signals
During The Search for Amelia Earhart in July 1937

Signals July 5

The Signal Identifier number is divided into these elements:

Day Time Source
5 0030 IA
(July) 24hr List

  • Identifiers in BLUE are TRANSMISSIONS to Earhart.
  • Identifiers in RED are reported receptions that are judged to be NOT CREDIBLE.
  • Identifiers in BLACK are reported receptions the credibility of which are judged to be UNCERTAIN.
  • Identifiers in GREEN are reported receptions that are judged to be CREDIBLE.

92–50000IA 93–50030IA 94–50100IA 95–50130IA 96–50200IA 97–50230IA 98–50300IA 99–50330IA 100–50630PU 101–50630CC
102–50638PY 103–50700TA 104–50714TA 105–50727TA 106–50730IA 107–50730CV 108–50745IA 109–50800IA 110–50815IA 111–5xxxxUN
112–50815CV 113–50907HD 114–50908HD 115–50910BR 116–50915CV 117–50916HD 118–50916CS 119–50916HN 120–50925HD 121–50948WD
122–51015CV 123–51105HD 124–51115CV 125–51130WE 126–51200ME 127–51213IA 128–51215CV 129–51223WD 130–51230PN 131–51235IA
132–51240IA 133–51245IA 134–51250IA 135–51254IA 136–51300IA 137–51305CV 138–51350PU 139–51417CV 140–51700CB 141–52130IA
142–52130KK 143–52135IA 144–52152IA              

92
Identifier 50000IA
Z Time/Date 0000 July 5
Local Time/Date 1230 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1300 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice, with a long count, requesting her to respond.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 166
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

93
Identifier 50030IA
Z Time/Date 0030 July 5
Local Time/Date 1300 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1330 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice, with a long count, requesting her to respond.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 166
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

94
Identifier 50100IA
Z Time/Date 0100 July 5
Local Time/Date 1330 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1400 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice, with a long count, requesting her to respond.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 166
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

95
Identifier 50130IA
Z Time/Date 0130 July 5
Local Time/Date 1400 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1430 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice, with a long count, requesting her to respond.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 167
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

96
Identifier 50200IA
Z Time/Date 0200 July 5
Local Time/Date 1430 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1500 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice, with a long count, requesting her to respond.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 167
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

97
Identifier 50230IA
Z Time/Date 0230 July 5
Local Time/Date 1500 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1530 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice, with a long count, requesting her to respond.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 167
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

98
Identifier 50300IA
Z Time/Date 0300 July 5
Local Time/Date 1530 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1600 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice, with a long count, requesting her to respond.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 167
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

99
Identifier 50330IA
Z Time/Date 0330 July 5
Local Time/Date 1600 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1630 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice, with a long count, requesting her to respond.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 168
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

100
Identifier 50630PU
Z Time/Date 0630 July 5
Local Time/Date 2000 HST July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1930 July 4
Agency/Person Pan American Airways Radio direction finding station
Location Mokapu Point, Oahu
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Mokapu heard KGMB request Earhart to send four dashes, and heard 4 dashes on 3105 immediately following the broadcast. Mokapu then asked KGMB to repeat the broadcast, to verify the response, and KGMB did so. Mokapu heard two dashes immediately following the second broadcast. Mokapu said that KGMB repeated the broadcast message to Earhart at half hour intervals “during the evening.” Mokapu obtained a radio direction finder bearing of approximately 215° on the source of the dashes.
Source Pan Am memo from Section Supervisor, Communications, Honolulu to Division Superintendent, Communications, Alameda dated July 10, 1937; Finding Amelia, p. 137.
Probability 0.2
Qual Factors The timing of the dashes heard at 0630Z and shortly after suggests they were in response to the KGMB broadcast. Responding dashes could not have originated on the U.S. west coast because KGMB could not be heard there, as discussed in the introductory material to this catalog. The bearing of Gardner from Mokapu is 213°, very close to the approximate bearing of 215° obtained by Mokapu. Earhart’s transmitter was the only known central Pacific source of signals on 3105 kHz, other than Itasca.
Credibility Credible

101
Identifier 50630CC
Z Time/Date 0630 July 5
Local Time/Date 2000 HST July 4
Gardner Time/Date 1930 July 4
Agency/Person Coast Guard Commander, Hawaiian Section (COMHAWSEC)
Location Honolulu
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content At 0730Z, COMHAWSEC informed USS Colorado, USS Swan, the Coast Guard cutter Itasca, and the Navy radio station at Tutuila, Samoa, that since 0630Z COMHAWSEC had heard “carrier broken” – i.e. dashes – signals responding to the 0630Z KGMB broadcast; Finding Amelia, p. 137.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 385
Probability 0.2
Qual Factors The timing of the dashes heard at COMHAWSEC suggests they were in response to the KGMB broadcast. The dashes could not have originated on the U.S. west coast because KGMB could not be heard there due to interference by broadcast stations on the same frequency in Idaho Falls, and Pueblo Colorado (see footnote 12). Earhart’s transmitter was the only known central Pacific source of signals on 3105 kHz, other than Itasca.
Credibility Credible

102
Identifier 50638PY
Z Time/Date 0638 July 5
Local Time/Date 0638 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1938 July 4
Agency/Person Pan American Airways Radio direction finding station
Location Midway Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content A faint, wobbly, short duration voice signal was heard and a bearing of approximately 201°was obtained. The frequency was checked with that of Itasca’s 3105 kHz transmitter and found to be “just a hair higher.” A man’s voice was distinctly heard but was too weak to be understood or identified.
Source Pan Am memo from Operator in Charge, Communications, Midway, to Division Superintendent, Communications, Alameda dated July 11, 1937; Finding Amelia, pp 151 et seq.
Probability 0.015 (Gardner); 0.00025 (west coast)
Qual Factors Based on signal strength considerations alone, it was possible for Midway to hear routine west coast aircraft transmissions not related to the 0630Z KGMB broadcast. However, the signal bearing rules out such sources. The bearing of Gardner from Midway is 175°, whereas the possible bearings of west coast aircraft signals ranged from 049° (Seattle) to 069° (San Diego). The difference between 175° and the observed 201° bearing at Midway is a plausible consequence of the signal strength and duration. See TIGHAR research paper Radio Direction Finder Analysis for a discussion of the Pan Am direction finding procedure. The time of this signal suggests it was a response to the KGMB broadcast. The possibility of a west coast source responding to the broadcast can be ruled out, since KGMB could not be heard there (see footnote 12). Itasca did not transmit on 3105 kHz between 0330Z and 0730Z July 5, and thus was not the source. Earhart’s transmitter was the only other known central Pacific source of voice signals on 3105 kHz.
Credibility Credible

103
Identifier 50700TA
Z Time/Date 0700-0704 July 5
Local Time/Date 2000-2004 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2000-2004 July 4
Agency/Person U.S. Navy radio station
Location Tutuila, Samoa
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Tutuila heard a series of 4 dashes.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 385; Finding Amelia, pp 151 et seq.
Probability 0.86
Qual Factors The timing of the signal suggests it was in response to the KGMB broadcast at 0700Z. The signal could not have originated on the U.S. west coast because KGMB could not be heard there (see footnote 12). Earhart’s transmitter was the only known central Pacific source of signals on 3105 kHz, other than Itasca. But Itasca did not transmit on 3105 kHz between 0330Z and 0730Z July 5.
Credibility Credible

104
Identifier 50714TA
Z Time/Date 0714-0716 July 5
Local Time/Date 2014-2016 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2014-2016 July 4
Agency/Person U.S. Navy radio station
Location Tutuila, Samoa
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Tutuila heard a series of 4 dashes.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 385; Finding Amelia, pp 151 et seq.
Probability 0.86
Qual Factors The timing of the dashes suggests they were part of a continued response to the 0700Z KGMB broadcast. The dashes could not have originated on the U.S. west coast because KGMB could not be heard there (see footnote 12). Earhart’s transmitter was the only known central Pacific source of signals on 3105 kHz, other than Itasca. But Itasca did not transmit on 3105 kHz between 0330Z and 0730Z July 5.
Credibility Credible

105
Identifier 50727TA
Z Time/Date 0727-0731 July 5
Local Time/Date 2027-2031 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2027-2031 July 4
Agency/Person U.S. Navy radio station
Location Tutuila, Samoa
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Tutuila heard a series of 8 dashes, four of which were very strong, and also heard voice which was not distinguishable.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 385; Finding Amelia, pp 151 et seq.
Probability 0.86
Qual Factors The timing of these signals suggests they were in response to the KGMB broadcast at 0730Z. The dashes and voice could not have been a response from the U.S. west coast because KGMB could not be heard there (see footnote 12). Earhart’s transmitter was the only known central Pacific source of signals on 3105 kHz, other than Itasca. Itasca did not transmit on 3105 kHz between 0330Z and 0730Z July 5.
Credibility Credible

106
Identifier 50730IA
Z Time/Date 0730 July 5
Local Time/Date 2000 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2030 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart, in Morse code, asking her to please answer. (Note: Neither Earhart nor Noonan could read Morse.)
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 172
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

107
Identifier 50730CV
Z Time/Date 0730 July 5
Local Time/Date 2330 PST July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2030 July 4
Agency/Person COMFRANDIV
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content COMFRANDIV heard Itasca calling Earhart on 3105 kHz and shortly after heard a carrier on 3105 kHz. Carriers were later heard on 3105 kHz at about 15 to 20 minutes past each hour, until 0505 PST (1305Z) [apparently a typo – should be 0515 PST (1315Z) if on the assumed schedule], seemingly on a prearranged schedule. COMFRANDIV was listening for Earhart, using 6 radio receivers connected to two “diamond beam” (rhombic) antennas aimed at Honolulu.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 394; Finding Amelia, pp 151 et seq.
Probability 0.00000075
Qual Factors The time correlation of Itasca’s request and the signal heard at San Francisco might seem to suggest that the signal was a response to Itasca. However, the Itasca request was sent in Morse code, which neither Earhart nor Noonan could understand beyond recognizing an individual letter sent slowly and repetitively. The previous dashes responding to KGMB suggest that AE had her receiver tuned to KGMB’s frequency (1320 kHz), and thus could not have heard Itasca on 3105 kHz. The circumstances suggest that AE was continuing to respond to KGMB, on an hourly schedule, at 15 minutes past each hour. This was the same transmission schedule that Earhart declared prior to departing Lae, New Guinea, enroute to Howland Island.
Credibility Credible

108
Identifier 50745IA
Z Time/Date 0745 July 5
Local Time/Date 2015 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2045 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 6210
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 172
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

109
Identifier 50800IA
Z Time/Date 0800 July 5
Local Time/Date 2030 Jul 4
Gardner Time/Date 2100 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 7500
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 172
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

110
Identifier 50815IA
Z Time/Date 0815 July 5
Local Time/Date 2045 July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2115 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code,
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 172
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

111
Identifier 5xxxxUN
Z Time/Date Unknown, July 5
Local Time/Date “Early” July 5
Gardner Time/Date Unknown July 4 or 5
Agency/Person Thelma Dunham
Location Indianapolis, Indiana
Freq (kHz) 23,077 (13 meters)
Content Dunham claimed to have heard “This is Amelia Earhart calling all stations,” repeated three times, plus “Sending equipment getting weak. Have landed on water. Don’t know position. Navigator is trying to check longitude and latitude. Getting hungry, but can survive for 24 hours.”
Source New York Herald Tribune, July 6, 1937, p.2; Logansport, Indiana Pharos-Tribune, July 6, 1937, p.6; Finding Amelia, p.184.
Probability n/a
Qual Factors The time of reception was not specified. The frequency given is not near a harmonic of either of Earhart’s frequencies. It was impossible to transmit if the plane had landed on water. This was clearly a hoax.
Credibility Not Credible

112
Identifier 50815CV
Z Time/Date 0815 July 5
Local Time/Date 0015 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2115 July 4
Agency/Person COMFRANDIV
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content This was one of the series of signals, seemingly on an hourly schedule, heard at COMFRANDIV since 0730Z.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 394; Finding Amelia, pp 151 et seq.
Probability 0.003
Qual Factors The circumstances suggest that Earhart was continuing to respond to KGMB, on an hourly schedule, at 15 minutes past each hour, the same transmission schedule that she declared prior to departing Lae, New Guinea, enroute to Howland Island.
Credibility Credible

113
Identifier 50907HD
Z Time/Date 0907-0923 July 5
Local Time/Date 2237-2253 HST July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2207-2223 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content In an exchange with the Itasca at 1003Z, July 5, Howland said they had heard carrier signal, with a man’s voice, from 2137 to 2153 Howland local time on July 4. Howland was keeping HST, GMT -10.5.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 175
Probability 0.84
Qual Factors Earhart’s transmitter was the only known central Pacific source of voice signals on 3105 kHz, other than Itasca. This could be part of a continuing response to KGMB, on an hourly schedule, at 15 minutes past each hour, the same transmission schedule that Earhart declared prior to departing Lae, New Guinea, enroute to Howland Island. However, it was not plausible for her transmitter to be on the air for such a long time. It would be plausible for there to be a series of short transmissions during this time, but the Howland report does not contain enough information to justify assuming such was the case.
Credibility Uncertain

114
Identifier 50908HD
Z Time/Date 0908 July 5
Local Time/Date 2238 HST July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2208 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content A man’s voice, very weak, was heard.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 386
Probability 0.88
Qual Factors The Itasca radio log during the period of the search for Earhart shows consistent difficulty in contacting Howland Island, which suggests the temporary radio antenna erected there was barely adequate for the task. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that the Howland antenna was sensitive enough to pick up signals from west coast aircraft. Earhart’s transmitter was the only plausible source of central Pacific voice signals, other than Itasca. This signal appears to have been heard at about the same time as Baker Island (30 miles south of Howland) heard Identifier 50910BR.
Credibility Credible

115
Identifier 50910BR
Z Time/Date 0910 July 5
Local Time/Date 2240 HST July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2210 July 4
Agency/Person Ham radio operator
Location Baker Island (30 miles south of Howland Island)
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content The time cited above is the time at which the Coast Guard Commander, Hawaiian Section (COMHAWSEC) informed the Itasca that Baker Island had heard a voice transmission from KHAQQ (Earhart’s call sign) to NRUI (Itasca) “a short while ago.” COMHAWSEC also told Itasca that Howland Island had heard “weak voice.” Baker and Howland had previously been directed to listen continuously on 3105 kHz.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 386
Probability 0.85
Qual Factors Earhart’s transmitter was the only plausible source of central Pacific voice signals, other than Itasca. This signal appears to have been heard at about the same time Howland Island heard Identifier 50908HD.
Credibility Credible

116
Identifier 50915CV
Z Time/Date 0915Z July 5
Local Time/Date 0115 PST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2215 July 4
Agency/Person COMFRANDIV
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content This was one of the series of carrier signals, seemingly on an hourly schedule, heard at COMFRANDIV since 0730Z.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 394; Finding Amelia, pp. 151 et seq.
Probability 0.0005
Qual Factors This signal is one of those apparently responding to the 0730Z KGMB broadcast to Earhart, heard at COMFRANDIV on an apparent hourly schedule, at 15 minutes past each hour. This was the same transmission schedule that Earhart declared prior to departing Lae, New Guinea, enroute to Howland Island.
Credibility Credible

117
Identifier 50916HD
Z Time/Date 0916 July 5
Local Time/Date 2246 HST July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2216 July 4
Agency/Person Ham radio operator K6GNW
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Howland Island heard Earhart call Itasca at 0916Z. Howland said that Baker Island also heard the Earhart plane at that time.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 174
Probability 0.85
Qual Factors The source of this signal was positively identified as the Earhart plane. This signal was heard at virtually the same time as, and could be the source of, the carrier signal previously reported by COMFRANDIV.
Credibility Credible

118
Identifier 50916CS
Z Time/Date 0916 July 5
Local Time/Date 0116 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2216 July 4
Agency/Person Howard Coons
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 15525
Content A United Press (UP) wire service story reported that at 5:16 a.m. EST, Coons, another mainland radio listener (see Identifier 50916HD), and a radio operator at Howland Island simultaneously heard a signal apparently from Earhart. Coons was reported to have said he heard “Still alive. Better hurry. Tell husband all right” on “a wavelength of 15,600 and 15,900 kilocycles.”
Sources United Press (UP) wire story, Honolulu, July 5; Circleville, Ohio, Daily Herald, July 5, 1937; and Charleston, West Virginia, Daily Mail, July 5, 1937.
Probability 0.05
Qual Factors The reception time stated in the wire story, 0516 EST (1016Z) was incorrect, apparently due to a reportorial time conversion error. The correct time can be deduced from the facts that there was no reported Howland reception at any time near 1016Z, and Howland (Identifier 50916HD above), listening on 3105 kHz, heard Earhart calling the Itasca at 0916Z. Therefore, the correct time for the Coons reception was 0916Z (0416 EST). As for the stated frequency, the phrase “15,600 kilocycles and 15,900 kilocycles likely was a reporter’s misunderstanding of “between” those frequencies. There was no amateur radio band near those frequencies, but there was a shortwave broadcast band from 15,100 kHz to 15,350 kHz, and the 5th harmonic of 3105kHz – 15,525 kHz – was near the upper end of that band. Home radios of the day, with shortwave capability, tended to have poor selectivity, and Coons could well have heard a signal from Earhart on 15,525 kHz, and misread the crowded receiver dial to get the reported frequencies. The phrases that Coons claimed to have heard were plausible.
Credibility Credible

119
Identifier 50916HN
Z Time/Date 0916 July 5
Local Time/Date 0116 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2216 July 4
Agency/Person Earnest Henderson
Location Auburn, Washington
Freq (kHz) Unknown
Content The United Press (UP) wire service story cited in Identifier 50916CS above reported that at 5:16 a.m. EST, Henderson also simultaneously heard a signal apparently from Earhart. Henderson reported to have said he heard “50 – 128 – QQ – waterlogged – can’t last much longer.”
Source United Press (UP) wire story, Honolulu, July 5; Circleville, Ohio, Daily Herald, July 5, 1937; and Charleston, West Virginia, Daily Mail, July 5, 1937.
Probability 3105 kHz: less than one chance in one quadrillion; 15525 kHz: 0.013
Qual Factors The reception time stated in the wire story, 0516 EST (1016Z) was incorrect, apparently due to a reportorial time conversion error. The correct time can be deduced from the facts that there was no reported Howland reception at any time near 1016Z, and Howland (Identifier 50916HD above), listening on 3105 kHz, heard Earhart calling the Itasca at 0916Z. Therefore, the correct time for the Henderson reception was 0916Z (0416 EST). The wire story did not include the frequency on which Henderson was listening. If it was 3105 kHz, the reception probability was virtually zero. Reception was feasible on 15525 kHz (the 5th harmonic of 3105 kHz), the same frequency on which Coons (Identifier 50916CS) heard Earhart. However, there was no plausible reason for Earhart to use the word “waterlogged.” Absent evidence that Henderson was listening on a harmonic of 3105 kHz, this report is suspect.
Credibility Not Credible

120
Identifier 50925HD
Z Time/Date 0925 July 5
Local Time/Date 2255 HST July 4
Gardner Time/Date 2225 July 4
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Howland heard a weak carrier, but no modulation.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 198
Probability 0.93
Qual Factors The timing of the signal does not match that of the hourly sequence heard by COMFRANDIV, and there is no evidence corroborating Earhart as the source. It is possible that Howland was hearing one of the Nicaraguan stations operating on frequencies close to 3105 kHz.
Credibility Uncertain
121
Identifier 50948WD
Z Time/Date 0948-0952 July 5
Local Time/Date 0948-0952 Z July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2248-2252 July 4
Agency/Person Pan American Airways Radio direction finding station
Location Wake Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content At 0948 a voice signal of good intensity and well modulated but wavering badly suddenly came on 3105. While the carrier frequency of this signal did not appear to vary appreciably, its strength did vary in an unusually erratic manner and at 0950 the carrier strength fell off sharply with the wavering more noticeable than ever. At 0952 it went off completely.
Source Pan Am memo from Operator in Charge, Communications, Wake, to Division Superintendent, Communications, Alameda dated July 11, 1937.
Probability 0.001
Qual Factors Earhart’s transmitter was the only central Pacific source of voice signals on 3105 kHz.
Credibility Credible

122
Identifier 51015CV
Z Time/Date 1015 July 5
Local Time/Date 0215 PST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 2315 July 4
Agency/Person COMFRANDIV
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content This was one of the series of carrier signals, seemingly on an hourly schedule, heard at COMFRANDIV since 0730Z.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 394; Finding Amelia, pp 151 et seq.
Probability 0.0017
Qual Factors This signal appears to be one of those responding to the 0730Z KGMB broadcast to Earhart, heard at COMFRANDIV on an apparent hourly schedule, at 15 minutes past each hour. This is the same schedule that Earhart declared prior to departing Lae, New Guinea, enroute to Howland Island.
Credibility Credible

123
Identifier 51105HD
Z Time/Date 1105 July 5
Local Time/Date 0035 HST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0005 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca detachment
Location Howland Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content An unidentified continuous wave signal was heard. No call sign was heard. A direction finder bearing of either south-southeast or north-northwest was obtained using a magnetic compass. The bearing ambiguity was due to ionospheric multipath interference – “night effect.” The frequency was reported as “slightly above” 3105 kHz.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 389
Probability 0.78
Qual Factors The bearing line, although directionally ambiguous, lay approximately along the line between Howland Island and Gardner. The nearest land north-northwest of Howland is Wake Island (1500 nmi); the Pan American Airways direction finder station there would not be transmitting on any frequency near 3105 kHz. The next nearest land beyond Wake is in the Kuril Islands (about 3300 nmi), but there were no stations in that vicinity operating on a frequency near 3105 kHz. This suggests that the signal originated from a source south-southeast of Howland. Earhart’s transmitter was the only plausible source in that direction.
Credibility Credible

124
Identifier 51115CV
Z Time/Date 1115 July 5
Local Time/Date 0315 PST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0015 July 5
Agency/Person COMFRANDIV
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content A carrier signal, one of the series of signals seemingly on an hourly schedule since 0730Z.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 394; Finding Amelia, pp 151 et seq.
Probability 0.0038
Qual Factors This signal appears to be one of those responding to the 0730Z KGMB broadcast to Earhart, heard at COMFRANDIV on an apparent hourly schedule, at 15 minutes past each hour. This was the same transmission schedule that Earhart declared prior to departing Lae, New Guinea, enroute to Howland Island.
Credibility Credible.

125
Identifier 51130WE
Z Time/Date 1130-1230 July 5
Local Time/Date 0100-0200 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0030-0130 July 5
Agency/Person Navy radio station Wailupe
Location Oahu
Freq (kHz) Not given. Assume 3105.
Content The following Morse code transmission, consisting of fragmentary phrases, with extremely poor keying, was copied by three Navy operators: “281 NORTH HOWLAND CALL KHAQQ BEYOND NORTH DONT HOLD WITH US MUCH LONGER ABOVE WATER SHUT OFF”
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 388; Finding Amelia, p. 164.
Probability 0.006
Qual Factors The text of this fragmented message has been thoroughly analyzed by TIGHAR, but no conclusive reconstruction was possible because neither the boundaries of the fragments, nor the length of gaps between fragments, are known. The characterization of the keying as “extremely poor” is consistent with Earhart or Noonan – neither of whom was proficient at Morse – having composed a message by writing dots and dashes on paper, then transmitting it by using the microphone push-to-talk button to key the transmitter. Fragmentation also could have resulted from signal fading. The phrase “281 North Howland” was misinterpreted by Itasca to mean the plane was 281 miles north of Howland – which was impossible since the plane would be on water and unable to transmit. The Pan Am RDF station at Mokapu Point heard weak carrier signals on 3105 kHz during the night, some of which could have been this transmission. Mokapu got an approximate bearing of 215° on a carrier signal at 1225 Z. On balance, the evidence weighs in favor of the Wailupe signal being from Earhart.
Credibility Credible

126
Identifier 51200ME
Z Time/Date 1200 July 5
Local Time/Date 2200 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0100 July 5
Agency/Person Unnamed ham radio operator
Location Melbourne, Australia
Freq (kHz) 3105 (assumed)
Content The Melbourne ham heard a “strange” signal at 10 p.m. Melbourne time on Monday July 5, but did not perceive until the caller “signed off” that it was “Mrs. Putnam,” i.e. Earhart. The ham reported the signal to local civil aviation authorities.
Source Melbourne, Australia, newspaper “The Argus,” Saturday July 10, 1937.
Probability 0.002
Qual Factors This signal was heard during the same period as the signal heard at Wailupe above. The “strange” aspect of the signal would be consistent with the fragmentary phases and extremely poor keying reported by the Wailupe operators. The “sign off” reported by the Melbourne ham apparently consisted of the call letters KHAQQ heard at Wailupe. There is no basis for believing this was a hoax. The evidence suggests this was a concurrent reception of the signal heard at Wailupe.
Credibility Credible

127
Identifier 51213IA
Z Time/Date 1213 July 5
Local Time/Date 0043 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0113 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 7500
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 177
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

128
Identifier 51215CV
Z Time/Date 1215 July 5
Local Time/Date 0415 PST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0115 July 5
Agency/Person COMFRANDIV
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content A carrier signal, one of the series of signals seemingly on an hourly schedule since 0730Z.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 394; Finding Amelia
Probability 0.0038
Qual Factors This signal appears to be one of those responding to the 0730Z broadcast to Earhart, heard at COMFRANDIV on an apparent hourly schedule, at 15 minutes past each hour. This was the same transmission schedule that Earhart declared prior to departing Lae, New Guinea, enroute to Howland Island.
Credibility Credible.

129
Identifier 51223WD
Z Time/Date 1223-1236 July 5
Local Time/Date 1223-1236 Z July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0123-0136 July 5
Agency/Person Pan American Airways Radio direction finding station
Location Wake Island
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content A very unsteady voice modulated carrier was observed at 1223Z, which lasted until 12:36 Z. Wake was able to get an approximate bearing of 144 degrees, believed to be reasonably accurate. The signal began at QSA 5 (a very strong signal) and gradually reduced to QSA 2 (moderate strength) by 12:36Z.
Source Pan Am memo from Operator in Charge, Communications, Wake, to Division Superintendent, Communications, Alameda dated July 11, 1937.
Probability 0.0006
Qual Factors It was not plausible for Earhart to key her transmitter for 13 minutes. However, this could have been a series of short transmissions separated by brief intervals, appearing as part of the perceived unsteadiness. The fact that the voice was not readable could be explained by severe multipath fading interference. It is unlikely that Wake was hearing a west coast aircraft, due to the distance – about 4,000 miles – and the poor signal propagation from the west coast, which was worse than the propagation from Gardner by a factor of about 10,000. Wake described the characteristics of the signal as identical to those of a signal heard the previous night; that signal was heard during a period when Itasca was not transmitting. Earhart’s transmitter was the only central Pacific source of voice signals on 3105 kHz, other than Itasca.
Credibility Credible

130
Identifier 51230PN
Z Time/Date 1230 and 1251 July 5
Local Time/Date 0430 and 0451 PST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0130 and 0151 July 5
Agency/Person Karl Pierson, Radio engineer and Ham radio operator
Location Los Angeles, CA
Freq (kHz) Not given. 3105 kHz assumed
Content Pierson claimed to have heard Itasca asking Earhart to send 4 dashes, at the times above, and claimed to hear 3 long dashes immediately following each Itasca transmission. Pierson said each dash “ended in a ripple, as though the plane’s batteries were dead and the motor generator was being run to furnish transmission power.”
Sources New York Herald Tribune, July 6, 1937, p. 2; MSG9.PDF, p. 394; RADREST.PDF, p. 178 and p. 180; Finding Amelia, p. 171.
Probability 0.00000005 at Los Angeles; 0.00009 at COMFRANDIV.
Qual Factors Itasca called Earhart on 3105 kHz at 1223Z and 1254Z, but not at 1251Z. Pierson could have heard the Itasca calls, and his clock could have been a few minutes slow. However, COMFRANDIV had radio operators listening for Earhart signals on 6 receivers, connected to 2 high-gain rhombic antennas. COMFRANDIV heard dash signals, apparently from Earhart, on 3105 kHz during the night, but Pierson did not report hearing any of those signals. The propagation paths from Gardner to San Francisco and Los Angeles were virtually identical. The fact that COMFRANDIV, listening with highly sensitive antennas heard signals that Pierson did not hear, but did not hear the two signals Pierson claimed to have heard, suggests that Pierson was perpetrating a hoax.
Credibility Not Credible.

131
Identifier 51235IA
Z Time/Date 1235 July 5
Local Time/Date 0105 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0135 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content This signal is not in the Itasca log. The Pan Am station at Midway heard Itasca calling Earhart (presumably in voice), but no response was heard.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 179
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

132
Identifier 51240IA
Z Time/Date 1240 July 5
Local Time/Date 0110 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0140 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in voice. A minute later, Howland Island heard Itasca say “give us 4 long dashes if you hear us.”
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 179 and p.180
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

133
Identifier 51245IA
Z Time/Date 1245 July 5
Local Time/Date 0115 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0145 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart on 3105. (Assumed in voice).
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 180
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

134
Identifier 51250IA
Z Time/Date 1250 July 5
Local Time/Date 0120 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0150 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Howland Island heard Itasca calling Earhart on 3105, and giving unspecified instructions.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 180
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

135
Identifier 51254IA
Z Time/Date 1254 July 5
Local Time/Date 0124 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0154 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 180
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

136
Identifier 51300IA
Z Time/Date 1300 July 5
Local Time/Date 0130 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0200 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 7500
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 180
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

137
Identifier 51305CV
Z Time/Date 1305 July 5
Local Time/Date 0505 PST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0205 July 5
Agency/Person COMFRANDIV
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content A carrier signal, one of the series of signals seemingly on an hourly schedule since 0730Z.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 394; Finding Amelia.
Probability 0.000000075
Qual Factors This signal appears to be one of those responding to the 0730Z KGMB broadcast to Earhart, heard at COMFRANDIV on an apparent hourly schedule, at 15 minutes past each hour. This was the same transmission schedule that Earhart declared prior to departing Lae, New Guinea, enroute to Howland Island. It is plausible that this was the last signal of this series heard at COMFRANDIV because the propagation path from Gardner faded out at 1400Z.
Credibility Credible.

138
Identifier 51350PU
Z Time/Date 1350 July 5
Local Time/Date 0320 HST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0250 July 5
Agency/Person Pan American Airways Radio direction finding station
Location Mokapu Point, Oahu
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Carrier on again briefly, not long enough to get a bearing.
Source Pan Am memo from Section Supervisor, Communications, Honolulu to Division Superintendent, Communications, Alameda dated July 10, 1937.
Probability 0.0097
Qual Factors This signal could have been sent by Earhart, on battery power, or it could have been from a west coast aircraft. There is not sufficient information to decide the credibility of this signal.
Credibility Uncertain

139
Identifier 51417CV
Z Time/Date 1417-1419 July 5
Local Time/Date 0617-0619 PST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0317-0319 July 5
Agency/Person COMFRANDIV
Location San Francisco
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content “NRUI” (Itasca’s call sign) was heard in Morse code at 1417Z (0617 PST), followed almost immediately by 4 dashes of approximately 4 to 5 seconds duration, with spaces of the same length. Shortly afterward a carrier was heard, and a man’s voice. The only distinguishable English was the letter “I,” at the end of the transmission, which lasted approximately 2 minutes.
Source MSG9.PDF, p. 394
Probability 0.007 (Morse code); 0.000025 (voice)
Qual Factors Itasca did not call Earhart on 3105 between 1254Z and 2130Z. Although Earhart and Noonan were not proficient in Morse code, either could send NRUI in Morse code if the message was composed and written down before sending. “NRUI” in Morse is short enough for “clean” transmission by pressing the microphone push-to-talk button, without the sender’s finger becoming fatigued and altering the rhythm of the signal. A plausible scenario that fits the reported information is that “NRUI” was sent in Morse to get Itasca’s attention, followed by the dashes, then in voice “This is KHAQQ calling NRUI,” with only the final “I” rising above the atmospheric noise at San Francisco.
Credibility Credible

140
Identifier 51700CB
Z Time/Date 1700Z (and unspecified subsequent times) July 5
Local Time/Date 1300 EDT July 5
Gardner Time/Date 0600 July 5
Agency/Person Mrs. Ernest Crabb
Location Toronto, Canada
Freq (kHz) 18630
Content This reception was on the day after Mrs. Crabb heard Earhart, and appears to be the same sort of fragmentary conversation that she heard the previous day.
Source Toronto Daily Star, July 5, 1937 and July 6, 1937
Probability 0.00004
Qual Factors 18630 kHz is the 6th harmonic of 3105 kHz. Mrs. Crabb heard this signal on the same 20-tube shortwave receiver she used the previous day. Given the similarity of this signal and the credibility of her previous report, there is no reason to doubt the credibility of this signal, which could have been sent on battery power.
Credibility Credible

141
Identifier 52130IA
Z Time/Date 2130 July 5
Local Time/Date 1000 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1030 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 188
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

142
Identifier 52130KK
Z Time/Date 2130 to 2315 July 5 (Date uncertain; believed to be July 5 based on signal propagation and other factors)
Local Time/Date 1630 to 1815 EST July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1030 to 1215 July 5
Agency/Person Betty Klenck
Location St. Petersburg, Florida
Freq (kHz) 24840 (4th harmonic of Earhart’s day frequency – 6210 kHz).
Content See sources below.
Sources Research paper Betty’s Notebook, on TIGHAR website; research paper Harmony and Power (revised), on TIGHAR website; Finding Amelia, p. 172.
Probability Varied from 0.0013 to 0.00000067 during the period
Qual Factors Betty was extensively interviewed by TIGHAR, and key elements of her notebook relating to occult information – facts Betty could not have known from sources other than what she heard on the radio – have been validated. Details are available on the TIGHAR website.
Credibility Credible

143
Identifier 52135IA
Z Time/Date 2135 July 5
Local Time/Date 1005 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1035 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code.
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 188
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

144
Identifier 52152IA
Z Time/Date 2152 July 5
Local Time/Date 1022 July 5
Gardner Time/Date 1052 July 5
Agency/Person Itasca
Location Central Pacific
Freq (kHz) 3105
Content Itasca called Earhart in Morse code
Source RADREST.PDF, p. 188
Probability n/a
Qual Factors n/a
Credibility n/a

Background   |   Messages July 3, 1 – 47   |   Messages July 4, 48 – 91
Messages July 5, 92 – 144   |   Messages July 6 – 10, 145–182

Research Papers Earhart Project Home Page

About TIGHAR Join TIGHAR TIGHAR Projects TIGHAR Publications Contract Services
The TIGHAR Store Blog TIGHAR Forum Contact TIGHAR TIGHAR Home

Copyright 2017 by TIGHAR, a non-profit foundation. No portion of the TIGHAR Website may be reproduced by xerographic, photographic, digital or any other means for any purpose. No portion of the TIGHAR Website may be stored in a retrieval system, copied, transmitted or transferred in any form or by any means, whether electronic, mechanical, digital, photographic, magnetic or otherwise, for any purpose without the express, written permission of TIGHAR. All rights reserved.

Contact us at: info@tighar.org  •   Phone: 610.467.1937   •   JOIN NOW