|Volume 15, 1999
pp. 19 – 24
still on Nikumaroro during Niku IIIIP we had received word via satellite
phone that the team in Fiji had talked to a woman who was a former resident
of the island. She described seeing aircraft wreckage on the Nutiran reef
north of the Norwich City shipwreck. A few days later, another interview
with an early settler, said to be the widow of the island’s radio operator,
appeared to confirm that villagers on Nikumaroro in the prewar years were
aware that an airplane had come to grief there at some time before their
courtesy R. Matthews.
voyage back to Fiji, again via satphone, we made arrangements to
do follow-up interviews with the two women. No video or audio tape
had been made of the initial interviews out of concern that cameras
or recorders might create an intimidating atmosphere, but a friendly
rapport had been established and we hoped that it would be possible
to videotape the second interviews. We arrived in Suva, Fiji early
on the morning of Sunday, July 25 and were scheduled to fly back
to the U.S. the night of Tuesday, July 27, so it was imperative
that we waste no time in arranging and preparing for the interviews.
Gillespie on Nikumaroro learns via satellite phone of new information
uncovered by the TIGHAR team in Fiji.
July 25, Kristin Tague and I met with Foua Tofiga who had worked
as a clerk for the Western Pacific High Commission in Suva during
the years in question and had been instrumental in helping our
Fiji Team locate and contact the two women. He also served as
translator during the interviews. Kris and I spent a pleasant
two hours with him at his home. I found him to be a well-educated,
articulate, and soft-spoken man with an excellent command of English.
Having studied the files of the Western Pacific High Commission,
I was quite familiar with the names, procedures and personalities
of the WPHC and in chatting about those times and those people
it was immediately apparent that Mr. Tofiga was entirely genuine
in his representation of his experience. He was, in fact, able
to clear up several questions we had about the meaning of various
abbreviations in the files and flesh out our picture of the various
officials with personal anecdotes.
Foua Tofiga. TIGHAR photo by
Mr. Tofiga has
only been to Nikumaroro once, in late November 1941 with High Commissioner
Sir Harry Luke who was touring the Phoenix Islands settlements in the
wake of the death of Officer-in-Charge Gerald Gallagher in September.
Tofiga’s presence on that trip is confirmed in the published diary
of Sir Harry Luke (A South Seas Diary, Nicholson & Watson,
London, 1945) who says: “The party consisted of Dr. Macpherson
Thompson with Tofinga [sic], the Ellice Islander clerk from the High
Commission, as interpreter.” Tofiga has no recollection of seeing
or hearing about bones or airplane wreckage during that visit but Sir
Harry’s diary indicates that the ship was only at Gardner one day
(Sunday, November 30, 1941).
Sextant Box Remembered
Despite his close
association with the top officials of the WPHC, Tofiga had not been
aware of the discovery of bones and artifacts on Gardner nor had he
seen any of the official correspondence about attempts to identify them.
This was because he worked in the Accounts section rather than in Correspondence
and, as we know, the whole issue of the castaway of Gardner Island was
kept “strictly secret.” Tofiga does, however, remember that
Henry Vaskess, Secretary of the WPHC, kept a collection of curios on
a credenza in his office. The centerpiece was a wooden box which, Tofiga
says, looked very much like the photos we showed him of the Pensacola
sextant box. His recollection matches the official record which last
mentions the sextant box as being stored in Vaskess’ office. Mr. Tofiga
doesn’t remember whether it had any numbers on it and has no idea what
may have eventually become of it.
(pronounced “ohSEEria”) O’Brian was interviewed twice
by TIGHAR, once by Kristin Tague, with Foua Tofiga serving as translator,
on Monday, July 19th and again by me, accompanied by Kris, with Tofiga
again translating, on Tuesday, July 26th. The latter interview was
videotaped. Mrs. O’Brian, despite her Irish surname, is a Gilbert Islander
by birth. Her late husband, Fasimata O’Brian, was not Irish either
but was born in the Ellice Islands. (Perhaps there was an Irishman
involved somewhere along the line but that was not clear.) Otiria speaks
and understands virtually no English. The interviews were conducted
in her bedroom in her son’s home where she is confined by her frail
health. Tofiga translated my questions into Gilbertese, and her answers
TIGHAR photo by
interviews she appeared to be alert and lucid, and although some of
her memories seemed to be jumbled, others tracked quite accurately with
documented events. Otiria O’Brian is a Protestant Christian and, to
my astonishment, began her videotaped interview by turning to the camera
and singing several verses of a Gilbertese song which Mr. Tofiga later
explained was a hymn about “Standing firm for Christ.” She
says she is 80 years old which would make her year of birth 1919, and
her general appearance seems consistent with that age. But when asked
what year she was born she said she was born in August of 670 and went
to Nikumaroro in 178. It is possible that she was using a numbering
system that is not familiar to Tofiga or to us.
Otiria says she
was born on the island of Onotoa in the southern Gilberts. When asked
how she and her family came to live in the Phoenix Islands, she says
that the government came and told the people that “Those who wished
to own land they could go.” That’s a good description of what happened
and most of the first settlers did come from the southern Gilberts,
including several from Onotoa.
In both interviews
Mrs. O’Brian said that she never lived on Nikumaroro but only stopped
there briefly en route to Sydney Island (Manra) where she and her family
settled. This seemed odd given the amount of detail she remembered about
the island and the stories about an airplane wreck and bones. Our other
interviewee, Mrs. Emily Sikuli, was adamant that Mrs. O’Brian had lived
on Nikumaroro for a time as the wife of radio operator Fasimata O’Brian.
Subsequent research has shown that Emily was correct. We have been able
to track Otiria’s movements through clues gleaned from her answers to
various specific questions and from the official record.
As best we can
reconstruct events, Otiria traveled with her family from her home island
of Onotoa in the Gilberts to settle on Manra, making a one night stop
at Nikumaroro along the way.
courtesy E.R. Bevington.
Otiria doesn’t remember the name of the ship that brought her to the
Phoenix Group, she does recall that it was a “big ship”
that “belonged to Banaba” (Ocean Island). “Word came
from Heaven saying that it was all right to go on this ship because
it was from the government.” This could be a reference to an
endorsement of the Phoenix Island Settlement Scheme by the London
Missionary Society, the predominant religious presence in the southern
Gilberts. Ocean Island was the headquarters for the Gilbert and Ellice
Islands Colony which administered P.I.S.S. Its principal vessel was
the Royal Colony Ship (RCS) Nimanoa. Indeed, most of the settlers
for Gardner (Nikumaroro), Hull (Orona), and Sydney (Manra) were transported
Sailing from the
Gilbert Islands they came first to Nikumaroro where they went ashore
in boats that belonged to the ship and spent one night in the village
where there was a “wooden house.” About “20 or 10”
people, including some women and children, “whose names were for
Nikumaroro” stayed behind when, the next day, the others numbering
“20 or 30” reboarded the ship and continued on to Orona where
some disembarked. The rest, including Otiria and her family, came finally
Officer-in-Charge of the Phoenix Island Settlement Scheme, whom Mrs.
O’Brian refers to as “Kela,” was already in residence on Nikumaroro
when she got there. He had “a house that was just built” and
he had “servants to cook for him.” She says that he came with
them when the ship continued on to the other islands.
Given that Otiria
was from Onotoa, I wondered if she might remember the name of the headman
on Nikumaroro who had been a prominent figure on Onotoa before becoming
Native Magistrate on Nikumaroro. To my surprise, the name she came up
with was not Teng Koata, but “Tikana.” Bauro Tikana was Gallagher’s
clerk and interpreter. He arrived with Gallagher in September 1940 at
the same time that Koata took a leave of absence and traveled to Tarawa.
This is a further indication that Otiria was not on Nikumaroro prior
to Gallagher’s arrival.
It seems that Mrs.
O’Brian’s initial visit to Nikumaroro was sometime after Gallagher’s
arrival in early September 1940 but before his departure for Fiji in
early June 1941. We can further constrain the time because, according
to Gallagher’s “Progress Report, Fourth Quarter 1940,” his house on
Nikumaroro was not sufficiently completed to permit occupancy until
the middle of November. It is also clear from his report that no ships
and no new settlers arrived between his arrival in September and the
end of the year. He does mention that “RCS Nimanoa paid a very
hurried visit to the District to distribute essential stores” in early
January 1941. The ship called at Nikumaroro first, apparently on the
11th, and Gallagher accompanied it to Orona and Manra to check on the
progress of those settlements. No mention is made of the ship bringing
any new settlers but neither is it specifically stated that it did not.
The “Progress Report, First Quarter 1941” specifically states that aside
from Nimanoa’s brief visit in January, “No shipping has been
available for the transport of settlers, stores, or equipment...” through
the end of the quarter (March 1941). During the spring of 1941 RCS Nimanoa
was being overhauled in Suva and no other ships are mentioned in the
record as having visited Nikumaroro.
It would therefore
appear that there is really only one documented possibility for when
Otiria O’Brian spent her night on Nikumaroro enroute to Manra – January
later in 1941 – we’re not sure just when – Otiria married Fasimata
O’Brian on Manra and traveled with him to the G&EIC colonial headquarters
on Ocean Island. The provisioning records of HMFS Viti show
that “Fasamata” [sic] and “Atiria” [sic] left
there on September 11, 1941 and arrived at Gardner a week later on
September 18th. This was the same voyage that would end with the death
Gerald Gallagher. After a brief stop at Gardner on the 18th, Viti continued
on to Canton, Sydney and Hull, returning to Nikumaroro on the 25th
with Gallagher gravely ill. He died on September 27, 1941 and was buried
at the foot of the island flagpole. This would seem to explain Otiria’s
answer to my question:
did you hear about this thing [airplane crash] that happened on Nikumaroro?
I heard because this happened before we arrived at Nikumaroro. We
arrived and we followed the burial procession. The man who died was
a government official. He was buried under the flag, not in the common
Otiria and her
husband lived on Nikumaroro for the next two months until Viti
returned with High Commissioner Sir Harry Luke. According to the ships
records, on November 30, 1941 “Fasamata [sic], W/T operator, and
wife” were transported from Gardner Island to Hull Island, arriving
there the next day. By coincidence, this is the same voyage that took
Emily Sikuli from her home on Nikumaroro to nursing school in Fiji –
so Emily and Otiria left the island at the same time and on the same
ship. In her earlier interview with Kris Tague, Otiria had said that
Fasimata had been assigned to Orona for only a short time before settling
on Manra where she says she spent the war years.
placed Otiria’s initial arrival at Nikumaroro in January 1941, well
after Gallagher had found the bones the previous September, it’s clear
that any information she has is second hand at best. Indeed, the same
ship that brings her to the Phoenix Group carries the box of bones
and the artifacts away from Nikumaroro when it leaves (Gallagher’s
letter that accompanies the shipment is dated December 27, 1940).
This may help explain her confusing response to my question:
there a shipwreck at Nikumaroro?
No. It went
aground, but was not broken up. Maybe it is still there. There was
no damage to it. It was right on the reef but there were no people
on board. I remember seeing it. Standing there firm. Nothing broken.
No people. Another ship came and took away the people from the ship.
The government put a stop to people going on board.
When Mr. Kela
(Gallagher) arrived he went to that ship and found a person that
had been killed but he was put under the ship, below the ship. Mr.
Kela then directed certain ones to come and build a box and put
this person in it and take it to be buried. The person was lifted
and put in the box. The one who died was not a European. He came
story about the body and the box may be a very garbled rendition of
something she heard on the island about the bones Gallagher found
and the box built to contain them. We’ve heard other stories about
bones being found near the shipwreck which may or may not be true,
but Gallagher certainly made no mention of any such discovery. Her
assertion that the one who died was from Onotoa could stem from the
fact that the original discovery of the skull seems to have been made
by Teng Koata, the Native Magistrate from Onotoa who left the island
when Gallagher arrived.
Crashes, One Memory?
If Mrs. O’Brian’s
recollections about Kela finding a body are difficult to match with
known events, her account of an airplane wreck at Nikumaroro is even
more confusing. Greatly complicating the issue is the fact that she
spent the war years on Sydney Island (Manra) where we know that a
C-47 crashed catastrophically on December 17, 1943 (see “The
Crash at Sydney Island” TIGHAR
Tracks Vol. 14, No. 2, page 15). How much of what she remembers
of that event is mixed up with what she says about what she heard
talked about on Nikumaroro is hard to determine.
In her initial
interview, Kris Tague asked her whether she had seen wreckage of
any kind at Nikumaroro. She answered:
I have seen. Things that float or move about in the sea. People
said they were parts of an airplane.
As far as we know, Mrs. O’Brian had no idea that Kris had any interest
in an airplane. I later asked Mr. Tofiga if, in setting up the initial
interview, he had told Mrs. O’Brian that we are searching for an
airplane. He was quite sure that he had not.]
even members of the government came to look at it. ... Men were
making expressions of sadness about the fate of those whose plane
crashed. I didn’t see because we were there only briefly. ... It
is said that they broke up and sank in the ocean. They said that
the parts were seen by a ship and they went to look for more of
In her second
interview eight days later, I tried everything I could think of
to give her an opportunity to talk about the airplane wreckage without
“leading” her. I asked if there was anything unusual about the island.
She said the fishing was very good. I asked if there were other wrecks
on the island besides the ship that was on the reef. She said there
were other wrecks there and on Orona, but volunteered no details. (There
were no other shipwrecks at Nikumaroro but there was a shipwreck at
Orona). Finally, in desperation, I asked:
the people on Nikumaroro say anything about an airplane?
We did not stay on Nikumaroro. I was on Manra.
Okay, I thought, let’s see if she knows about the crash on Manra.
How long did you live on Manra?
We were there when we were young and when we were girls.[giggles]
During the war?
Do you remember an airplane crashing on Manra?
There was one, but it landed in the lagoon. [As indeed it did.]
Nobody died. Only a few days and they went away.
said nothing while she thought for a minute.
buried three of them and maybe the one who piloted the plane. One
died and one lived. I do not know for sure if they were American or
British. [In fact, there were nine fatalities in the Sydney Island
crash. All died on impact except one who lived for about fifteen minutes.]
then said to her as a statement, not a question:
But you remember nothing about an airplane at Nikumaroro.
a long thoughtful pause she said:
There was a plane that crashed at Nikumaroro. There was a woman. No.
A couple. A man and a woman. The man was the pilot. He was the one
flying the plane. [Another long pause during which I said nothing.]
A bullet hit him in the eye [gestures toward her eye] and of
course that made him lose control [moves her hands as if rocking
a steering wheel]. One died. The Onotoa people came and lifted
him out and made a box for him. When he was questioned why he didn’t
take care, he said that he was hit and he didn’t have any control.
The Onotoa people were very angry so that that one became very frightened
[here she laughs] and he was saying, ’I didn’t kill him. I
didn’t do anything bad to him. He was my brother.’ And he left his
plane and followed the Onotoa people. One died. The other lived.
belong to which crash? The pilot of the plane who was questioned
by the Onotoa people could be the one brief survivor of the Sydney
crash. The C-47 had been circling the island and inexplicably hit
a palm tree on a low pass. Was the fatally injured pilot trying
to explain to the islanders who found him that a bird had come through
the windshield and struck him in the face? Were the protestations
of innocence that Mrs. O’Brian found so amusing, in fact, the hysterical
apologies of a guilt-ridden dying pilot? We’ll never know.
It would be
tempting to ascribe all of her memories about crashed airplanes
to the one accident we know happened on the island where she lived,
except that some of the details she offers about the Nikumaroro
wreck don’t fit the Sydney wreck at all. The mention of “a woman,
a man and a woman, a couple” is remarkable. She also describes not
a witnessed crash but parts said to be “pieces of a plane.” The
Sydney crash happened in full view of the villagers. The phrase
“the parts were seen by a ship” can be interpreted as “the parts
were seen by people on a ship” or it could mean “the parts were
seen near a ship.” If she meant the latter, then her recollections
match those of Emily Sikuli who says she saw aircraft wreckage
on the reef at Nikumaroro near the wreck of the S.S. Norwich City.
In the end,
Mrs. O’Brian’s recollections are not terribly helpful except as
garbled corroboration of Emily Sikuli’s far more detailed and specific
account of an airplane that was wrecked at Nikumaroro before the
first settlers arrived in 1938.