Evaluation and Assessment of Significance
Archaeological Site: 8BY1817 (Aircraft Crash)
Final Report, April 24, 2017, page 6.

Artifact Analysis, cont.

Engine Fuel Line Fragment, Figure 16.

One of two engine-related artifacts identified on 8BY1817, this fuel line remnant is consistent with those found on the General Electric/Allison J-33-A-35 turbojet engines installed in P/F-80, F-94A/B, and T-33A aircraft. Manufactured from tubular sheet aluminum alloy, this fuel line fragment retains a stainless steel hose clamp with ferrous thumbscrew and a remnant of the woven rubber hose it connected to. The clamp is stamped, “WITTEK MFG. CO. CHICAGO USA AN737-46 FRSS” and includes a separate date stamp of “1/49” (January 1949). An identical hose clamp on site has a date stamp of “2/52” (February 1952). Such hose clamps were ubiquitous among numerous engine applications, but the stamped dates are helpful in determining a “no earlier than” date for the crash to have occurred. The aluminum alloy and ferrous material exhibit light to moderate oxidation, but the stainless steel and rubber have little evidence of deterioration.15


Figure 16. Engine Fuel Line Fragment, Artifact #8BY1817-16.

Canopy Fragment, Figure 17.

These Plexiglas fragments are ⅝″ thick, consistent with the thickness of canopies used on T-33A aircraft. Despite their condition, both fragments retain the curvature resulting from production molding. Inherently unaffected by ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), and visible light, these acrylic fragments show no apparent signs of deterioration. 16


Figure 17. Canopy Fragments, Artifact #8BY1817-10A/B.

Radio Frequency Oscillator Label, Figure 18.

Consistent with cockpit switch labels of the T-33A, this sheet aluminum alloy artifact identified and housed the switches used to activate the electronic oscillator to produce radio signals for transmission from the aircraft. Radio frequency oscillators are necessary to convert the direct current electricity provided by the batteries in the aircraft to an alternating current signal for improved transmission above 100 Kilohertz. Bent and torn from impact and the resulting separation from the console, this artifact retains most of its original paint and exhibits light oxidation with some deterioration from UV, IR, and visible light.17


Figure 18. Radio Frequency Oscillator Label, Artifact #8BY1817-18.

Thermocouple Lead Spool Resistor Housing Fragment, Figures 19 and 20.

The only other engine related artifact identified on site, this fragment is part of the housing (with attached label) from the thermocouple lead spool resistor on a J-33-A-35 turbine engine, used in T-33A, P/F-80, and F-94A/B aircraft. This resistor allowed mechanics servicing the engine to obtain a more accurate calibration of the exhaust gas temperature indicator. The label provides the model number “AN-5534-1” and manufacturer’s part number “81 831” which are diagnostic to the Lewis Engineering Company, a known parts supplier to Lockheed Aircraft. This sheet aluminum artifact exhibits moderate corrosion and retains some black label paint.18

Figure 19. Thermocouple Lead Spool Resistor Housing Fragment, Artifact # 8BY1817-19, above.
Figure 20. Label on Thermocouple Lead Spool Resistor Housing Fragment, left.


Aileron Drum, Figures 21 and 22.

A T-33A Training Manual from 1958 identifies this artifact as an aileron drum. This pulley is made of Formica, and was used on the T-33A near the center of the wing interior, closer to the trailing edge of the airfoil where the aileron (movable surface controlling aircraft roll direction) was attached. A braided steel control cable, attached to the base of the control stick in the cockpit, ran through the wing interior and passed through the grooved edge in this drum before it reached the aileron. The resulting connection allowed the pilot to move the aileron up and down, “banking” or “rolling” the aircraft to execute a coordinated turn with the rudder. The Formica material is cracked and chipped, and the ferrous axle is heavily corroded.19

Figure 21. Aileron Drum, Artifact #8BY1917-20


Figure 22. Closer view of Aileron Drum.


Handbook Service Instructions, Model J33-A-35 Aircraft Engine, (Indianapolis: Bedford Co., January 1957), http://www.aircraft-reports.com/allison-j-33-a-35-aircraft-engine-handbook-service-instruction-manual-english-language/ (Accessed March 25, 2017). Back.


Plexiglas Acrylic Sheet: General Information and Physical Properties, (Philadelphia: Altuglas International, 2006), 1-18, http://www.plexiglas.com/export/sites/plexiglas/.content/medias/downloads/sheet-docs/plexiglas-general-information-and-physical-properties.pdf. (Accessed March 26, 2017). Back.


“Lockheed T-33A USAF ‘Shooting Star’ Trainer Aircraft Front and Rear Cockpit Instrument Panels,” http://aviation.watergeek.eu/t33-panel.html (Accessed March 25, 2017). Back.


Aviation Unit and Intermediate Maintenance Instructions, (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1987), 8-16, https://books.google.com (Accessed March 25, 2017); “Lewis Engineering Co. Naugatuck CT,” Defense Technical Information Center, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/cs/206350.html (Accessed March 25, 2017). Back.


T-33 Mark 3 Silver Star Airframe Training Manual, 5-2B. Back.

Abstract & Introduction Previous Investigations and Preliminary Findings Site Specific Aviation Historical Context Site Specific Aviation Historical Context 2 Artifact Analysis
Artifact Analysis 2 Archival Research NRHP Assessment of Eligibility & Recommendation Bibliography  

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